Blood - BISC 220 Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid...

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BISC 220 1 3/22/10 Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid connective tissue consisting of scattered cells in a matrix that suspends them o 55% plasma and 45% cellular (form) elements Plasma is made of water, ions (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, H with [Na and Cl] as the most abundant), proteins (hormones, antibodies, clotting proteins, albumin (most abundant, exerts osmotic pressure for capillary reabsorption, binds a number of hydrophobic hormones [steroid] to prevent them from separating out from water phase) , nutrients, wastes, oxygen, carbon dioxide o Na/Cl don’t change that much, but loss of sodium due to excess sweating, vomit, diarrhea is bad o Concentration of calcium ions and hydrogen ions have to be maintained within a specific range even though they are present in relatively low concentrations o The activity of excitable cells (nerve and muscle) is suppressed by the presence of calcium in plasma o Generation of action potential in heart is suppressed by calcium, slightly elevated levels of calcium can cause decreased nervous activity that causes a coma, heart rate will slow down, with low calcium, hyper excitability, so nerve and muscle tissues start firing inappropriately, seizures/blackouts/memory loss in the brain and twitching in skeletal muscles, high heart rate ( tachycardia ) pH of plasma ~7.4, even .1 change would cause serious change, .2 fatal o conformation of proteins depends strongly on pH, exist at pH optimum (7.4) o Systems to buffer/maintain pH of blood 1) NaHCO3 buffer, acts instantaneously to maintain pH within certain range, most rapid but lowest capacity 2) Respiratory system as a whole adjusts pH of blood 3) Kidney, slowest, highest capacity o Metabolism produces acid (main waste product of respiration of carbon
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2010 for the course BISC 220 taught by Professor Mcclure during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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Blood - BISC 220 Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid...

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