Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Cell Communication...

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Chapter 11: Cell Communication Signal-transduction pathway: process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted to a specific cellular response is a series of steps Both animals and plants have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells (signaling substances dissolved in the cytosol can pass freely between adjacent cells) Local regulators influence cells in the vicinity Growth factors consist of compounds that can stimulate nearby target cells to grow and divide Numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to molecules of growth factor produced by a single cell in their vicinity Synaptic signaling- signal along a nerve cell triggers secretion of a chemical signal carried by neurotransmitter signal Hormones are used for long distance signaling, specialized cells release hormone molecules which travel via the circulatory system to target cells in other parts of the body Molecule must be recognized by a specific receptor and the signal must be transduced inside the cell before the cell can respond Sutherland found that there were three stages of cell signaling through research of epinephrine when they found that epinephrine could active glycogen phosphorylase only when the hormone was added to a solution containing intact cells o Epinephrine doesn’t interact directly with the enzyme and the membrane is involved Reception : target cell’s detection of signaling molecule (molecule binds to receptor protein at surface or inside cell) Transduction : binding of molecule changes the protein and initiates process of transduction, converting signal, sequence of changes in different molecules
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2010 for the course BISC 220 taught by Professor Mcclure during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Cell Communication...

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