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Chapter 5-6 Review

Chapter 5-6 Review - CHAPTER 5 REVIEW Monosaccharides o...

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C HAPTER HAPTER 5 R 5 R EVIEW Monosaccharides o Multiple of CH 2 O o Location of carbonyl [C=O] determines aldose (at the end of the carbon chain) or ketose (at the middle of the carbon chain) o Disaccharide glucose + glucose = maltose [1-4 linkage] glucose + fructose = sucrose [1-2 linkage] o Bond type: glycosidic o Plant Storage Starch (helical): 1-4 linkage Amylopectin (branched): 1-6 linkage Amylose (unbranched) o Animal Storage Glycogen: more extensively branched than amylopectin o Starch: alpha glucose [OH on bottom], helical ; Cellulose: beta glucose [OH on top], never branched Lipids o Mostly hydrocarbon regions o Fats: glycerol (alcohol with three carbons each) and three fatty acids (long carbon skeleton [16-18]) o Bond type: ester linkage (bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl) o Hydrocarbon chains Saturated (no double bonds); unsaturated (double bonds, removal of hydrogen) Kink in hydrocarbon chain where cis double bond occurs o Hydrogenated: synthetically added H, convert to saturated “trans” fat o Phospholipids
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Only two fatty acids, third hydroxyl joined to a phosphate group (negatively charged) Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail o Steroids Four rings Proteins o Enzyme: active site, substrate o 20 amino acids, polymer: polypeptide o Protein: one or more polypeptides o Amino group, carboxyl group, R group, H around the central “alpha” carbon o Polar or nonpolar, acidic or basic (*note: if they are acidic or basic, they are polar) o Bond type: peptide bond between carboxyl and amino group o Folding Primary: unique sequence of amino acids Secondary: alpha helices, beta pleated sheets; hydrogen bonding between polypeptide backbone
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