Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - polymer- long molecule consisting of many...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
polymer- long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds monomer- repeating units, smaller molecules dehydration reaction- two molecules are covalently bonded through loss of a water molecule o one molecule provides OH and the other an H enzyme- specialized macromolecule that speeds up chemical reaction hydrolysis- disassembling of polymers to monomers o bonds broken by addition of water molecule carbohydrates- sugars and polymers of sugars o monosaccharides- some multiple of the unit CH 2 O o glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )- carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups structural isomer: fructose hexoses o depending on the location, the sugar is either an aldose or ketose o sugars: carbon skeleton ranges from three to seven (six: hexose, three: triose, five: pentose) o asymmetric carbon: attached to four different groups of atoms glucose and galactose differ in placement of parts around one asymmetric carbon (H and OH switched) o in aqueous solutions most sugars form rings o cellular respiration: cells extract energy in a series of reactions starting with glucose molecules carbon skeletons also serve as raw material for the synthesis of other small organic molecules o disaccharides: two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage (covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction) o maltose: glucose + glucose o lactose: glucose + galactose
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
o sucrose: glucose + fructose o polysaccharides: macromolecules with a few thousand monosaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism starch- polymer of glucose molecules, represents stored energy as stockpile of surplus glucose, sugar can be withdrawn by hydrolysis, glucose molecules joined by 1-4 linkages, angle of the bond makes the polymer helical amylose is unbranched, amylopectin is branched with 1-6 linkages glycogen- polymer of glucose, storage for animals (humans mainly in liver and muscle cells) cellulose- component of the tough walls that enclose plants polymer of glucose differing glycosidic linkages (alpha or beta- whether hydroxyl group is attached to number 1 carbon is positioned below or above) in starch, all alpha configuration; in cellulose, all beta configuration the differing linkages give two distinct 3D shapes; starch is mostly
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 6

Chapter 5 - polymer- long molecule consisting of many...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online