GeomOpt_Part21

# GeomOpt_Part21 - Department of Electrical and Computer...

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECSE 527 Optical Engineering eometric Optics II Geometric Optics II • Apertures: Stops and pupils: Pages 1 43 •y nu Ray tracing: Pages 44 80 eflecting systems: 81 25 • Reflecting systems: 81 125 •Ray matrices: 126 157 Andrew Kirk 2010 Geometric Optics II 1

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Class 7. Apertures in Optical Systems All optical system components have a finite aperture which limits their spatial and angular light acceptance. The apertures of a system help to determine the system properties and are also important in the definition of two rays (chief ray and marginal ray) which characterize the first order properties of the system. In this class we will study the ncept of apertures and introduce the various terms for concept of apertures and introduce the various terms for them (such as stops) and for their images (pupils). We will relate these to optical systems such as cameras and the concept of lens speed (f/#). ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 2

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Learning outcomes After studying this material you should be able to: • Explain what is meant by a stop • Explain what is meant by ‘entrance and exit pupil’ and stify their significance justify their significance • Calculate (graphically and mathematically) the location of a pupil •D e f i n e the terms marginal ray and chief ray and sketch them for an optical system References: Hecht 5.2 ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 4
Contents 1. Stops and apertures 2. Entrance and exit pupils 3. Marginal and chief ray i tti d f/# 4. Vignetting and f/# ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 5

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Stops and apertures •S t o p s reduce the amount of light which passes through system • Field stop (FS) determines the field of view of the system ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 6 F.S.
Single Lens Reflex Camera h tt l View finder eyepiece Penta prism Shutter release Iris diaphragm Shutter Detector plate oveable mirror ns Moveable mirror ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 7 Lens Focusing mechanism From Hecht, Optics (3rd Ed.)

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Field of view Diaphragm D Lens f Object at F.S. ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 8
Camera lenses CCD array Shutter Diaphragm A.S. bject Image Object Lens f r odern SLR ingle lens flex) digital camera: F.S. For modern SLR (single lens reflex) digital camera: –f=50 mm – CCD size=35 mm ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 9 – Field of view=50°

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Aperture stop •S t o p s reduce the amount of light which passes through system Field stop determines the field of view of the system • Aperture stop (AS) determines the light gathering ability of system ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 10 F.S. A.S.
Compound microscope ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 11

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Compound Microscope Eye lens Objective lens Object F o F o Image at F e F e L ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 12 L =tube length (160 mm)
Microscope ray diagram ©AGK 2010 Geometric optics II. 14

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Pupils
Entrance and Exit Pupils •U s e d to determine whether rays will traverse the system • Pupils are images of the aperture stop – Entrance pupil describes maximum ray angle that will nter the system

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GeomOpt_Part21 - Department of Electrical and Computer...

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