Chapter 30-36 AP World History Review
1. Soviet economy
– OK, so, 1927 Stalin takes power in Russia and attempts to curtail the “New
Economic Policy” and move towards an authoritarian, socialist regime. At this point, the peasants
(kulaks) owned much of the land and profited off agriculture. Rural areas paralleled capitalist
movements in the West, which is the opposite of what Stalin wanted. He wanted to facilitate
industrialization whilst maintaining government control.
1928 – Government collectivizes agriculture (creating state-run farms) and mechanized it. Kulaks
owned the land so they were in opposition to this, laborers were mostly in favor of it. Many of the
kulaks were deported to Siberia during the 1930's. Opposition to collectivization basically crashed;
however, so did collectivization, as people weren't motivated enough. A major weakness in the Soviet
economy is the agricultural sector which demanded a higher percentage of the labor force than was
common under industrialization.
From here, industrialization shifted into “high gear.” He established five-year output plans, and though
he sucked at revolutionizing agriculture, he was awesome at industrializing Russia without fully
westernizing it (the book compares him with Peter the Great). Urban populations increased
dramatically. Even though he pushed for state control, he implemented capitalist facets such as profit-
oriented markets. 1927-1937 (two 5-year plans), Soviet output of machinery and metal products grew
14-fold. USSR was now the third industrial power, behind Germany and the US.
Notes: Cramped housing, strict factory conditions, incentives to motivate production introduced,
welfare introduced, strikes were outlawed.
1920's – 50's: USSR industrialized, urban population tops 50%. Ridiculous amounts of government
control and an imbalance between consumer and heavy industrial goods (high production) were key
elements. Eastern Europe and the USSR didn't develop mass consumerism like the US. Living
conditions improved, welfare increased and food lines were prevalent. *Environmental damage was
also extremely visible, caused by a drive to produce at all costs. Agriculture was neglected for arms and
heavy industrial spending – harsh climates also hindered agricultural production. Leisure activities
became more popular, and cramped living promoted the nuclear family structure.
1985 onward – mass USSR reform, sparked by deteriorating Soviet economic performance and cost of
competing with the US military. By late 1980's, half of all agricultural land was endangered, and
industrial production was static because of poor worker morale and bad central planning. Military
Late 80's reform: Gorbachev pushed for government deregulation and the use of free-market