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WHAP Study Guide(Rehan) 1-30

WHAP Study Guide(Rehan) 1-30 - Rehan Kaluarachchi Period 7...

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Rehan Kaluarachchi Period 7 AP World History Exam Review Aryan conquerors in India – Aryan nomads entered India from the north (central Asia) during the “formative” periods: the Vedic and Epic ages. The Vedic age (c. 1500-600 BCE) is usually associated with the migration of the Aryans into India. These warriors established and developed the early Indian institutions and structures. Social structures were more defined and controlling of the society than politics. Sanskrit language and Vedas of Hinduism have their roots within the Aryan culture. The nomads settled into consolidated agriculture and became the Indian people. (Chapter 3) Expansion of Islam and trade – 610 - Muhammad revelations. 622 - flee to Medina from Mecca. Gather supporters. This was essential to his success and Islamic expansion. 629 - return to Mecca and gather more support. The pre-Islamic Bedouin tribes were divided and dependent on weak agreements. Post-Islam, these supporters of the Muslim religion now could unite in ways similar to the structures seen in India. Religion acted as a driving force, and Islam expanded north into the Middle East and central Asia. Under a single flag, the Islamic civilization could expand and had the incentive of “booty” and conversions. Of course, unity was always threatened by the Islamic political sphere of instability. But the growth was rapid and occurred in between of political strife. Pre-Islamic trade was small because it was between tribes relations, which were strained. Trade was vastly profitable because of location. In the middle of all foreign trade, Islamic civilizations have always acted as the land bridge between Eastern Asia and Western Europe. Trade continued, greatly independent of the political fluctuations. (affected, but minimally) (6) Don’t forgot the extensions into Africa. Islam and trade were closely related in these interactions. The Swahili coast and North Africa were instilled with the institution of religious equality, making economic transactions more facilitated. By 711, Islam spread through Spain, across the Strait of Gibraltar, into North Africa. Slave trade and conversions were rapidly established. (8) Confucian values – filial piety, humility, mandate of heaven, virtue in society, secular in focus but question of meaning in scope. Confucius (roughly 551-478 BCE) - There were two divisions in which Confucianism can be analyzed. First was the ethical aspect: veneration and discipline. Confucius established a social norm or expectation which allowed the Chinese society to immediately conform and stabilize. Filial piety, or respect towards parents (inclusive of direct family), elders, and deceased, generated the growing generation’s development. This type of ethical standpoint fed into his political philosophy. Political aspects, largely under the Han dynasty (long after Confucius’s time), were focused upon development, with the civil service exam system and formal, standardized training of the government officials/bureaucrats. Remember that the scholar-gentry class arose in the wake
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