alberta_dg_finalguide_july2002

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Unformatted text preview: All persons reading or otherwise making use of this document or its contents are hereby advised that this document and its contents: (a) have not been prepared, reviewed or approved by or on behalf of the Government of Alberta or its Department of Energy; (b) are not a publication of and are not published by the Government of Alberta or its Department of Energy; (c) are not a statement of policy of the Government of Alberta or its Department of Energy, and have no official sanction or status. This document and its contents have been posted on an Alberta Department of Energy website solely as a courtesy and convenience to the distributed generation industry in order to facilitate access to the document. The Government of Alberta and its Department of Energy make no representation and warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or suitability of this document or of any of its contents. The Government of Alberta and its Department of Energy assume or accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for this document, for any of its contents or for any use or reliance on this document or its contents. Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide The Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide provides guidelines for connecting a generation facility to the Alberta Interconnected Electric System (AIES) via a Wires Owner’s distribution system, and assists in determining the technical and operating requirements of the facility. The Guide was developed by the Alberta Distributed Generation Technical and Policy Committee without regard to whether its adoption may involve patents on articles, materials or processes. Such adoption does not assume any liability to any patent owner, nor does it assume any obligation whatsoever to parties adopting this Guide. While every precaution has been taken in preparing the Guide, it may contain inadvertent inaccuracies or inconsistencies. The authors assume no liability for errors or omissions, or damages resulting from the use of or reliance upon the information contained herein. Final Version July 16, 2002 Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide In this document… Part 1 – General Interconnection Information ............................... 3 Part 2 – Guide for Generator Interconnection ............................. 11 Appendices.................................................................................. 45 Page 2 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide Part 1 – General Interconnection Information In this part… 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Introduction............................................................................ 4 Terms and Definitions ........................................................... 5 Responsibilities...................................................................... 7 Metering Requirements ......................................................... 9 Operating Requirements ..................................................... 10 Page 3 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Intent The intent of the Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide (hereinafter referred to as “the Guide” or “this Guide”) is to: 1. 2. Inform and provide guidelines for anyone wishing to connect a generation facility to the AIES via a Wires Owner’s distribution system; and Assist operators, technical staff, consultants and contractors in determining the technical and operating requirements of the facility. This Guide does not: 3. 4. Establish commercial or cost-sharing agreements. Each Wires Owner will have approved tariffs, including terms and conditions and electric service agreements for Distributed Generation (DG) and normal or standby consumption at the site. The DG Owner is encouraged to review its commercial obligations at the time of application. Provide guidelines for connecting to the system at voltages above 25kV. For information on connecting directly to the transmission system, see Technical Requirements for Connecting to the Alberta Interconnected Electric System Transmission System at the Transmission Administrator's web site at www.eal.ab.ca. For a complete description of the electric power industry in Alberta under the Electric Utilities Act, please refer to the Alberta Energy website, www.energy.gov.ab.ca/electric. 1.2 Guiding Principles This Guide was developed in accordance with the following principles: 1. The interconnection process must provide competitive, fair and equitable access for all DG Owners. 2. The interconnection must not create a safety hazard to other customers, the public or operating personnel. 3. The interconnection must not compromise the reliability or restrict the operation of the electric system. 4. The interconnection must not degrade power quality below acceptable levels. Page 4 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 2.0 Terms and Definitions The following terms are defined to assist understanding of Distributed Generation: This term … Is defined as … Accredited Certification Organization An organization that has been accredited by the Standards Council of Canada to operate a certification program for electrical equipment, such as the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). AECUC The Alberta Electrical and Communication Utility Code. AEUB The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. AIES The Alberta Interconnected Electric System. Bi-Directional Meter A meter that measures real and reactive power and energy in both directions. CEA The Canadian Electricity Association. CEC The Canadian Standards Association's C22.1-98 Safety Standard for Electrical Installations Part 1, also known as the Canadian Electrical Code. CSA The Canadian Standards Association. Distributed Generation or Distributed Generator (DG) Unregulated electric generators connected to a distribution system through the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). DG Owner The entity which owns or leases the Distributed Generation facilities. Distribution System Any power line facilities under the operating authority of the Wires Owners. Distribution power line facilities generally operate at or below voltages of 25kV nominal, line to line. Electric Utilities Act Legislation passed in the Province of Alberta that creates a deregulated market for the generation of electric energy. Exporter An entity which sells electric energy produced within the Province of Alberta to buyers outside the province. Generator A device that produces AC power. In the case of inverters, the document uses the term Generator to refer to the AC inverter, not the DC source. IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Importer An entity which sells electric energy produced outside the Province of Alberta to buyers within the province. Interval Meter A meter that measures transmission of electric energy and stores data in 15minute intervals. Island A condition in which a portion of the Wires Owner’s system which is electrically separated from the rest of the Wires Owner’s system is energized by one or more distributed generators. Page 5 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information This term … Is defined as … Load Flow Study A steady-state computer simulation study of the voltages and currents on the electric system. Load Settlement Agent The entity responsible for allocating energy to and from the distribution system. The Wires Owners are assigned this responsibility. Operating Authority The individual within the Wires Owner’s organization and within the DG Owner's organization who is responsible for the safe and orderly operation of electric system facilities. Parallel Operation The operation of a generation facility while connected to an electric power grid in such a way that both the grid and the generation facilities supply electric power to the loads at the same time. Point of Common Coupling (PCC) The point at which the Wires Owner’s facilities are connected to the DG Owner’s facilities or conductors, and where any transfer of electric energy between the DG Owner and the Wires Owner takes place. Power Pool The market for all electric energy bought or sold in Alberta; the entity through which DG Owners sell their electric energy. Power Pool Participant An entity which has executed an agreement with the Power Pool of Alberta for the sale or purchase of electric energy. Safety Codes Act The Alberta Safety Codes Act and Alberta regulations under that Act. Stabilized The state of the distribution system after voltage and frequency has returned to normal range for a period of at least five minutes (or another period of time, as coordinated with the Wires Owner) following a disturbance. System Controller A provincially appointed authority responsible for dispatching load and generation of the AIES in real time. Tariffs Published rates, including terms and conditions and electric service agreements for the sale of electric energy and energy services regulated by the AEUB. Telemetering The transmission of metering data using telecommunication systems. Transmission Administrator (TA) A provincially appointed authority responsible to provide access to the province-wide transmission system. The TA’s role is to provide transmission system access service on the AIES in a manner that gives all eligible persons wishing to exchange electric energy through the Power Pool of Alberta a reasonable opportunity to do so. Transmission System Any power line facilities under the authority of the Transmission System Owners. Transmission power line facilities generally operate at voltages above 25kV nominal, line to line. Visible-Break Disconnect A switch or circuit breaker by means of which the generator and all protective devices and control apparatus can be simultaneously disconnected under full load entirely from the circuits supplied by the generator. All blades or moving contacts must be connected to the generator side, and the design of the disconnect must allow adequate visible inspection of all contacts in the open position. Wires Owner The utility owning the distribution system. WSCC The Western Systems Coordinating Council. Page 6 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 3.0 Responsibilities Refer to Appendix A for a block diagram of the approval process for connecting a generation facility to a Wires Owner’s distribution system. 3.1 DG Owner Responsibilities The DG Owner is responsible to: Become a Power Pool Participant and comply with any Power Pool requirements (unless all energy produced at the site is to be consumed at the site); Provide technical information to the Wires Owner and to the Transmission Administrator, as specified in Appendix B; Design, install, operate and maintain the interconnection facility: • Ensure all necessary designs and drawings are signed and stamped by a licensed, professional engineer; • Have equipment certified by an accredited certification organization; and • Verify that the installation conforms to the current edition of Part I of the CEC; Pay the costs of interconnection, in accordance with the commercial terms established by the Wires Owner; Obtain all required permits and licenses: • Ensure that the local inspection and Safety Codes Act enforcement authorities accept the installation, or that the installation falls under the jurisdiction of an accredited corporation under the Safety Codes Act; • Before commissioning and commencing parallel operation, obtain the approval of the Wires Owner and establish a Joint Operating Agreement with the Wires Owner, similar to the generic Joint Operating Agreement provided in Appendix C, covering the technical and operating requirements; • Obtain AEUB approval and order to connect, and provide the AEUB approval and order numbers to the Wires Owner (AEUB approval requires a Joint Operating Agreement to be in place between the DG Owner and the Wires Owner); Obtain written approval from the Wires Owner before commencing parallel operation and before making any modification to the generation facility; Ensure metering requirements are met (see section 4.0); and Negotiate the timing and any testing requirements for the commissioning process with the Wires Owner, and if needed, with the Transmission Administrator and/or the System Controller. Page 7 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 3.2 Wires Owner Responsibilities The Wires Owner is responsible to: Carry out load flow studies within a reasonable period; Prepare a Joint Operating Agreement with the DG Owner, similar to the generic Joint Operating Agreement provided in Appendix C; Prepare a commercial agreement to address cost recovery; Inform the DG Owner of the Wires Owner’s current standards and practices, as they relate to the interconnection; Ensure metering requirements are met (see section 4.0); and Provide the DG Owner with the information specified in Appendix D. Page 8 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 4.0 Metering Requirements Both the DG Owner and the Wires Owner must meet requirements related to metering. The DG Owner is required to: Install an electric meter to measure active energy and reactive energy flowing out of the generation facility to the distribution system. The Wires Owner retains the right to obtain this data for internal use. The Wires Owner is required to: Install an electric meter to measure power, active energy and reactive energy flowing from the distribution system into the generation facility. The DG Owner retains the right to obtain this metering data for internal use. As agreeable between the parties, one physical bi-directional meter may be used to fulfill the requirements of both parties. Metering service companies are available in Alberta. These include distribution Wires Owners, as well as independent metering companies. Measurement Canada is responsible for testing and certification of meters. Page 9 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 1: General Interconnection Information 5.0 Operating Requirements 5.1 Operating Authority The Wires Owner and the DG Owner must each identify, by name or by job title, the individual within their organizations who is their “Operating Authority.” The Operating Authority is responsible to establish operating procedures and standards within each organization. The Operating Authority negotiates and signs the Joint Operating Agreement described in section 5.3. This individual also ensures that the Operator in Charge (see below) is competent to operate their respective system and aware of the provisions of any other operating agreements and any regulations that may apply. 5.2 Operator in Charge The Wires Owner and the DG Owner must each identify the individual, by name or by job title, who is the “Operator in Charge” of their facilities and operates their portion of the interconnection facility. This individual must be familiar with the Joint Operating Agreement, and also aware of the provisions of any other operating agreements and any regulations that may apply. The Operating Authority and the Operator in Charge may be the same person. 5.3 Joint Operating Agreement A Joint Operating Agreement must be established between the Wires Owner and the DG Owner to provide for the safe and orderly operation of the interconnection facility. The Agreement must include, but is not necessarily limited to, the following: A high-level technical description of the DG Owner’s generation facility, equipment and protection. A high-level technical description of the Wires Owner’s distribution system facilities and protection. A description of how the generation facility will operate (e.g., parallel or islanded). The DG Owner’s intent in operating the generation facility (e.g., sales, demand reduction). The name, title and telephone number(s) of the Operating Authority and the Operator in Charge for each party to the Agreement. Provision for the Wires Owner to disconnect the generation facility if it fails to meet technical and/or power quality requirements, or if the operation of the generation facility is or may become dangerous to life or property. Reference to safety procedures for joint work. Identification of responsibility for maintaining current operating information. Isolation procedures for work on the facilities. Notification requirements, if required before synchronization. Any control setting parameters that could affect the interconnection (e.g., voltage and frequency). The approval of both the Wires Owner and the DG Owner. A generic Joint Operating Agreement is provided in Appendix C. Page 10 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide Part 2 – Guide for Generator Interconnection In this part… 1.0 Purpose ............................................................................... 12 2.0 Limitations ........................................................................... 13 3.0 General Interconnection and Protection Requirements ...... 14 4.0 Construction ........................................................................ 30 5.0 Metering............................................................................... 31 6.0 Inspection ............................................................................ 33 7.0 Testing................................................................................. 34 8.0 Data Requirements.............................................................. 38 9.0 Marking And Tagging .......................................................... 39 10.0 Maintenance ........................................................................ 40 Tables .......................................................................................... 41 Page 11 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 1.0 Purpose The second part of this Guide establishes the criteria and technical requirements for interconnecting generation facilities with distribution systems (25kV or lower). Specifically, it addresses the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations and maintenance requirements of the interconnection. These requirements cover a broad spectrum of interests. Interconnecting generation facilities to a distribution system may change the system and its response. Attaining a technically sound and robust interconnection mandates diligence on the part of everyone involved, including designers, manufacturers, users, owners and operators of both the generation facilities and the distribution systems. All of the abovementioned groups need to reach a cooperative understanding of and meet the requirements established herein. This Guide was developed with reference to international standards, such as the IEEE Standard P1547 DRAFT Standard for Distributed Resources Interconnected with Distribution Systems. It is subject to regular review and revision, as necessary to conform to evolving Alberta and international standards, such as those developed by the IEEE. This Guide is not a design handbook. Anyone considering development of a generation facility intended for interconnection to a distribution system should engage the services of individuals qualified to provide design and consulting services for electrical interconnection facilities. Page 12 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 2.0 Limitations The criteria and requirements established by this Guide are applicable to all DG technologies and to the primary and secondary voltages of the distribution systems. Installation of DG facilities on the radial primary and secondary distribution systems is the main focus of this version, although network distribution systems are considered. For this version, the requirements must be met at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), although the protective devices may not necessarily be located at that point. This Guide establishes the minimum requirements for the interconnection. Additional requirements may need to be met by both the DG Owner and the Wires Owner to ensure that the final interconnection design meets all local and national standards and codes, and that the design is safe for the intended application. The Guide does not address any liability provisions agreed to elsewhere by both parties in a commercial agreement, or through tariff terms and conditions. Page 13 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.0 General Interconnection and Protection Requirements The DG Owner’s generation and interconnection facilities must meet all applicable national, provincial and local construction and safety codes. See Appendix E for a complete listing of commonly used codes and standards. Anyone may operate a 60 Hertz, three-phase or single-phase generation facility, in parallel with the Wires Owner’s distribution system and in accordance with the Joint Operating Agreement established with the Wires Owner, provided the requirements of this Guide are met or exceeded. The DG Owner is required to install, operate and maintain in good order and repair at all times, in conformity with good electrical practice, the equipment required by this Guide for the safe parallel operation with the Wires Owner’s distribution system. The following three sections, 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3, define the technical requirements for the distribution system, the generation facility and the interconnection facility respectively. These requirements promote safe operation and minimize the impact of the interconnection to the Wires Owner’s distribution system and its other customers. This Guide is not intended to provide protection for the DG Owner’s generation facility. It is the responsibility of the DG Owner to protect their facility in such a manner that distribution system outages, short circuits or other disturbances, including excessive zero sequence currents and ferroresonant over-voltages, do not cause damage. The DG Owner’s protective equipment must also prevent excessive or unnecessary tripping that could affect the reliability of the distribution system or power quality to other customers. Refer to Tables 1, 2 and 3 and Appendices F and G for interconnection protective function requirements. 3.1 Distribution System 3.1.1 System Frequency The AIES operates at 60 Hertz (Hz) Alternating Current (AC). Frequency variations are typically 59.7 Hz to 60.2 Hz for small contingencies that cause modest disturbances, but do not noticeably disrupt the AIES or its connection to the Western System. Variations of 58 Hz to 61 Hz or greater can occur for larger contingencies, for example if a portion of the AIES is required to be islanded. Page 14 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.1.2 Voltage Regulation CSA Standard CAN3 C235 83: Preferred Voltage Levels for AC Systems 0 to 50,000V provides general guidance as to appropriate performance. 3.1.3 Power Quality All interconnected equipment must comply with the Wires Owner’s standards for power quality. The following industry standards may provide guidance as to appropriate performance: Voltage Flicker - IEEE Std. 519-1992 IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems. Harmonics - Wires Owner’s Guide for the Connection of Non-Linear Load. 3.1.4 Voltage Unbalance Distribution systems are typically three-phase systems incorporating single-phase distribution taps. The voltage unbalance on a distribution system under normal operating conditions may reach three per cent, due to the unbalanced loading and single-phase regulation. Voltage unbalance will be calculated using the following formula, as derived from NEMA MG1-1993 14.35: Unbalance (%) = 100 x (deviation from average) / (average). 3.1.5 Fault Levels Fault levels and maximum allowable fault levels vary significantly through a distribution system and must be considered in the design of the interconnection. Fault levels and X/R ratios must be evaluated for the equipment selected. 3.1.6 System Grounding Distribution systems are typically operated as effectively (solidly) grounded and Wye-connected at the source substation bus. Other configurations are occasionally found. Distribution system grounding must conform to the AECUC (formerly the Alberta Electrical and Communication Utility System Regulation 44/1976, or future amendments). 3.1.7 Fault and Line Clearing To maintain the reliability of the distribution system, the Wires Owner uses automatic re-closing. The DG Owner must take this Page 15 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection into consideration when designing generator protection schemes to ensure the generator is disconnected from the Wires Owner’s system prior to the automatic re-close of breakers. The DG Owner may reconnect when the Wires Owner’s system is stabilized. To enhance reliability and safety, with the Wires Owner’s approval the DG Owner may employ a modified relay scheme with tripping or blocking using communications equipment between the DG facility and distribution system facilities. 3.2 Generation Facility 3.2.1 Mitigation of Adverse Effects Interconnecting distributed generation can adversely affect the electric service to existing or future customers. The DG Owner must work with the Wires Owner to mitigate any adverse affects. If a generation facility is affecting customers adversely, the Wires Owner may disconnect it until such time as the concern has been mitigated. The DG Owner is responsible for any costs incurred as a result. 3.2.2 Synchronism Any generation facility that can create an AC voltage while separate from the electric system must have synchronization facilities to allow its connection to the electric system. Inverter-type, voltage-following equipment that cannot generate an AC voltage while separate from the electric system does not require synchronization facilities; nor do induction generators that act as motors during start-up, drawing power from the electric system before generating their own power. The DG Owner is responsible to synchronize and maintain synchronization to the Wires Owner’s system. The Wires Owner’s system cannot synchronize to the generation facility. A proposed synchronizing scheme must be submitted and outlined in the Joint Operating Agreement and attachments. Distribution and transmission systems typically allow for automatic re-closing of electrical circuits after a variable time delay. The DG Owner is responsible for protecting their own facility from the impacts of such re-closing. Generators can automatically restart following automatic reclosing of distribution system equipment, if agreed to by the Wires Owner. Generators that automatically restart must have a time delay on restart, adjustable up to 60 minutes or as agreed to by the Wires Owner. The Wires Owner will coordinate the settings of generator restart time delays so that generators on any feeder restart in staggered order. Page 16 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.2.3 Voltage Regulation and Power Factor The DG Owner is responsible to ensure that the voltage levels at the PCC are maintained within the guidelines prescribed by the Wires Owner and/or are at least equal to the voltage levels at all feeder load conditions, prior to the interconnection. Synchronous generators connected to the distribution system must be equipped with excitation controllers capable of controlling voltage. The generator-bus voltage setpoint must be stable at and adjustable to any value between 95 per cent and 105 per cent so that the Wires Owner can maintain CSA voltage limits on the distribution system. Induction generators do not have voltage or reactive power control and consume reactive power (VAR). Therefore, the generator must provide reactive compensation to correct the power factor to ± 0.90 at the PCC, unless other terms are negotiated with the Wires Owner. Inverter-type generating equipment can control the power factor over a wide range, typically ± 0.75. An inverter-type generator connected to the distribution system must be capable of adjusting the power factor in the range of +/- 0.9. The DG Owner may operate outside that range by agreement with the Wires Owner. The Wires Owner will define voltage and reactive power control requirements on a project-by-project basis. Together, the Wires Owner and the DG Owner must identify the exact transformer ratio to allow optimum voltage regulation on the system, and determine if an on-load tap-changer is needed. In order to coordinate with its existing voltage control devices, the Wires Owner may require the generator to operate in a power factor control mode (i.e., within a constant power factor setpoint range). The voltage/ power factor regulator must be capable of controlling the power factor of the generator between +0.90 and -0.90. The Wires Owner will determine the actual setpoint between these limits. In power factor control mode, the voltage regulator must have a voltage override that causes it to reduce excitation if the voltage at the PCC exceeds an upper limit to be specified by the Wires Owner. The normal upper limit is 105 per cent of nominal; however, the voltage regulator must have provision to adjust this upper limit to between 100 per cent and 110 per cent of nominal. The voltage regulator must also have provision for a time delay between sensing an excursion of the upper voltage and initiating control action. The power factor control equipment must have provision to allow for the adjustment of this time delay between 0 and 180 seconds. The Wires Owner will specify the required time delay. Page 17 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.2.4 Frequency Control An interconnected generation facility must remain synchronously connected for frequency excursions, as identified in this Guide and the table below. For generators connected to the AIES, islanded operations are not allowed (see section 3.3.10). Generators not connected to the AIES that serve remote isolated systems must be capable of controlling the frequency of the system to between 59.7 Hz to 60.2 Hz for normal operation. Under-frequency and overfrequency relaying that automatically disconnects generators from the AIES must not operate for frequencies in the range of 59.5 to 60.5 Hz. The frequency of the electric system is controlled by all synchronous generator governor systems that connect to the electric system. Such governor systems respond automatically to changes in system frequency to prevent further deviation. Synchronous generators and other generators with stand-alone capability and capacity of 10 MW or more must have a speed droop governor. The droop setting of the governor must be five per cent, and the governor system must be operated at all times so that it is free to respond to system frequency changes. If a five per cent setting is not possible, the DG Owner must obtain approval from the Transmission Administrator for some other droop setting. In accordance with the Transmission Administrator and WSCC off-frequency requirements, generators connected to the grid that protect for off-nominal frequency operation should have relaying protection that accommodates, as a minimum, underfrequency and over-frequency operation for the time frames specified in the following table: Under Frequency Limit Over Frequency Limit Minimum Time 60.0-59.5 Hz 60.0-60.5 Hz N/A (continuous operating range) 59. 4-58.5 Hz 60.6-61.5 Hz 3 minutes 58.4-57.9 Hz 61.6-61.7 Hz 30 seconds 57.8-57.4 Hz 7.5 seconds 57.3-56.9 Hz 45 cycles 56.8-56.5 Hz 7.2 cycles less than 56.4 Hz greater than 61.7 Hz Instantaneous trip Systems with generators that do not meet the above requirements must automatically trip load to match the anticipated generation loss, at comparable frequency levels. Page 18 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.2.5 Voltage Unbalance Any three-phase generation facility must have a phase-to-phase voltage unbalance not exceeding one per cent, as measured both with no load and with balanced three-phase loading. Voltage unbalance is calculated using the following formula, as derived from NEMA MG1-1993 14.35: Unbalance (%) = 100 x [(deviation from average)/(average)]. Single-phase generators must not adversely unbalance the three-phase system. When they are connected in multiple units, an equal amount of generation capacity must be applied to each phase of a three-phase circuit, and the group of generators must maintain balance when one unit trips or begins generating before or after the others. A single one-phase generator may be connected alone only if it does not cause voltage unbalance on the distribution system in excess of two per cent. 3.2.6 Resonance and Self-Excitation of Induction Generators A) The DG Owner should consider resonance in the design of the generation facility, as certain resonance can cause damage to existing electrical equipment, including the electrical equipment of the DG Owner. Engineering analysis by the DG Owner should be a part of the design process to evaluate the existence of, and to eliminate the harmful effects of: a) ferroresonance in the transformer (Appendix H, Note 1); b) sub-synchronous resonance due to the presence of series capacitor banks (Appendix H, Note 2); and c) resonance with other customers' equipment due to the addition of capacitor banks to the distribution system (Appendix H, Note 3). B) In the event that an induction generator is used by DG Owner, the adverse effects of self-excitation of the induction generator during island conditions must be assessed and mitigated. The intent is to detect and eliminate any selfexcited condition (Appendix H, Note 4.) C) The engineering analysis of resonance and the assessment of the self-excitation effects of induction generators must be submitted to the Wires Owner for approval or further evaluation. Page 19 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3 Interconnection Facility 3.3.1 Safety Safety of personnel, the public and equipment is of primary concern in the design of the interconnection facility. 3.3.2 Point of Common Coupling (PCC) The PCC must be identified in the design and on the Single Line Diagram. The Wires Owner will coordinate the design, construction, maintenance and operation of the facility on the distribution side of the PCC. The DG Owner is responsible to coordinate the design, construction, maintenance and operation of the facility on the generation side of the PCC. All voltage and frequency parameters specified in this section must be met at the PCC unless otherwise stated. The DG Owner is responsible for any incremental costs to the transmission/distribution systems caused by the interconnection. The Wires Owner will carry out the engineering, design and construction required for its installation, and charge those costs back to the DG Owner. Ongoing O&M costs incurred on the distribution feeder side will also be recovered by the Wires Owner. 3.3.3 Point of Disconnection The disconnect switch can be located on the high or low voltage side of the interconnection transformer. When the interconnection involves three-phase generators, the disconnect switch must be gang operated to simultaneously isolate all three phases. High Voltage Disconnect Switch The disconnect switch on the distribution side of the interconnection transformer (e.g., 25 kV airbreak) must be installed, owned and maintained by the Wires Owner. Low Voltage Disconnect Switch The disconnect switch on the generation side of the interconnection transformer must be installed, owned and maintained by the DG Owner. The disconnect switch must be a manual, visible-break disconnect that provides safe isolation for the Wire Owner’s personnel from the generators and all other possible customer sources of power. Appendices F and G show sample configurations. All low voltage disconnect switches must: Be adequately rated to break the connected generation/load; Page 20 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Be located within five meters (horizontal) of the PCC, unless otherwise approved by the Wires Owner; Provide a direct, visible means to verify contact operation; Allow simultaneous disconnection of all ungrounded conductors of the circuit; Plainly indicate whether the switch is in the “open” or “closed” position; Be lockable in the “open” position; Be capable of being energized from both sides; Be readily accessible to the Wires Owner operating personnel; Be externally operable without exposing the operator to contact with live parts; Be capable of being closed without risk to the operator when there is a fault on the system; Be labeled with the Wires Owner’s switch number; Meet all applicable CSA Part II standards and all applicable codes; and Undergo annual inspections and maintenance. If the site interconnects multiple generators, one disconnect switch must be capable of isolating all of the generators simultaneously. There may be other means of meeting this requirement; however, the Wire’s Owner’s approval must be obtained before using other means. The DG Owner must follow the Wires Owner’s switching, clearance and tagging procedures. The Wires Owner is responsible to instruct the DG Owner in this regard. 3.3.4 Phasing Phasing is not standardized across distribution systems. Therefore, the phase sequence and the direction of rotation must be coordinated between the Wires Owner and the DG Owner. Page 21 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3.5 Interconnection Grounding Grounding configurations must be designed to provide: A solidly grounded distribution system; Suitable fault detection to isolate all sources of fault contribution, including the generator, from a faulted line or distribution facility; A circuit to block the transmission of harmonic currents and voltages; and Protection of the low voltage side from high fault current damage. The preferred configuration is a Delta connection on the DG Owner’s side of the transformer, and a grounded Wye configuration on the Wires Owner’s side of the transformer. If this configuration is not possible, the configuration chosen must still address the above concerns. The winding configuration for DG interconnection transformers should be reviewed and approved by the Wires Owner. 3.3.6 Interrupting Device Ratings The design of the generation facility must consider the fault contributions of both the distribution system and the generation facility itself, to ensure that all circuit fault interrupters are adequately sized. The Wires Owner will inform the DG Owner of the present and anticipated future fault contribution from the interconnected electric system. 3.3.7 Phase and Ground Fault Protection The DG Owner must install protective devices to detect and promptly isolate the generation facility for faults occurring either in the generation facility itself or on the distribution system. “Virtual devices” (i.e., computer or programmable-logic controller systems) are acceptable provided they meet standard utility practice for system protection and they have been type tested and approved by an independent testing laboratory. The protective devices in the generation facility must fully coordinate with the protective relays on the distribution system unless otherwise agreed. The DG Owner must calculate the protective device settings and submit the relay characteristics and settings to the Wires Owner for review and approval. The generation facility must be able to detect the following situations and isolate itself from the distribution system: A short circuit between any phase(s) and ground. A short circuit between phase(s). Loss of any phase(s). Page 22 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3.8 Over-Voltage and Under-Voltage Protection The DG Owner must operate its generation facility in such manner that the voltage levels on the Wires Owner’s system are in the same range as if the generation facility was not connected. The DG Owner must install necessary relays to trip the circuit breaker when the voltage, measured phase-to-ground, is outside predetermined limits. Under-voltage relays should be adjustable and should have a settable time delay to prevent unnecessary tripping of the generator on external faults. Over-voltage relays should be adjustable and may be instantaneous. The DG Owner’s interconnection facility must cause the generator to cease to energize the Wires Owner’s system within the trip times indicated in the following table. (“Trip time” is the period of time between the start of the abnormal condition and the moment the interconnection device ceases to energize the Wires Owner’s system.) Response to Abnormal Voltages RMS Voltage Trip Time RMS Voltage: V=<60 (V=<50%) Trip time: Instantaneous RMS Voltage: 60<V<108 (50%<V<90%) Trip time: 120 cycles RMS Voltage: 108=/<V=/<127 (90%<V<106%) Normal Operation RMS Voltage: 127<V<144 (106%<V<120%) Trip time: 30 cycles RMS Voltage: V>=144 (V>=120%) Trip time: Instantaneous The DG Owner may reconnect when the distribution system is stabilized (i.e., voltage and frequency have returned to normal range for at least five minutes). 3.3.9 Over-Frequency and Under-Frequency Protection The DG Owner must install frequency selective relays to separate the generation facility from the Wires Owner’s system in cases of extreme variations in frequency. Under-frequency and over-frequency relaying that automatically disconnects generators from the distribution system must be time delayed, in accordance with the Transmission Administrator’s requirements as per section 3.2.4. The DG Owner may reconnect when the distribution system is stabilized. Page 23 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3.10 Anti-Islanding The DG Owner’s generation facility must be equipped with protective hardware and software designed to prevent the generator from being connected to a de-energized circuit owned by the Wires Owner. At the discretion of the Wires Owner, the DG Owner may install under-frequency tripping and over-frequency tripping for antiislanding that will not negatively impact WSCC criteria, in conjunction with their load shedding schemes. In most cases, the generation facility will routinely operate as a part of the interconnected system. A problem on the system could lead to the generator becoming islanded (i.e., the generator becomes the sole supplier of power to one or more of the Wires Owner’s customers). The resulting irregularities in power quality could cause damage for other customers. To prevent this possibility, the DG Owner must use teleprotection signals from the distribution system or another reliable means to separate the generator from the distribution system in the event of islanding. If other means are used to detect islanding, the scheme must consist of reliable primary and backup functions using different quantities. The DG Owner is responsible for damage caused as a result of failure to safely separate during an islanding event. Where there could be a reasonable match between the DG Owner’s generation and the islanded load, conventional methods may not be effective in detecting the islanded operation. In this case, the Wires Owner will require the addition of transfer trip communication facilities to remotely trip-off the DG Owner’s generation upon opening the distribution feeder main circuit breaker or circuit recloser. 3.3.11 Telemetry Where a generator could adversely affect the distribution system (e.g., by providing inflow into a fault) the DG Owner must have systems in place to inform the Wires Owner of the protective operations that occurred or failed to occur. The WSCC’s Compliance Monitoring and Operating Practices Subcommittee requires Wires Owners, Transmission System Owners and the System Controller to provide telemetry of MW, MVAR, and breaker-status of all significant generation. “Significant” is presently defined as a capacity of 5MW or greater, although in some sensitive areas, the Wires Owner may require telemetry or transfer trip for smaller generators. See Table 2. Page 24 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3.12 Requirements for Transfer Trip Where transfer trip protection is required, the transfer trip protection must ensure that the generator does not “island” in the event of substation breaker or intermediate OCR operation. General requirements are: Generator lockout within 0.6 seconds of breaker or OCR operation; and Fail-safe lockout within 6 seconds of communication loss. The DG Owner is responsible for detecting and tripping in the event of a communication loss. Transfer tripping requirements are also applicable to induction generators, unless the DG Owner can demonstrate that that there is no potential for self-excitation. 3.3.13 Special Interconnection Protection In some cases, provision for generator-specific protection and controls will be necessary, such as out-of-step or loss of synchronism. Additionally, the DG Owner needs to be aware that unbalance conditions can occur in the distribution system, especially under system fault conditions, and the design of the interconnection facility should take this into account. For Star-Delta interconnection transformers, the unbalance fault current could damage the generator interconnection transformer under certain fault conditions. This is a result of the circulating current, which occurs in the Delta winding of the interconnection transformer in an attempt to balance the fault current. Protection for the transformer may be required to address this issue. 3.3.14 Flicker The DG Owner must not cause excessive voltage flicker on the distribution system. The flicker must not exceed the Wires Owner’s flicker guidelines. 3.3.15 Harmonics In accordance with IEEE 519, the total harmonic distortion (THD) voltage must not exceed five per cent of the fundamental 60 Hz frequency, nor three per cent of the fundamental for any individual harmonic, when measured on the Wires Owner’s side at the PCC. Page 25 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.3.16 Inadvertent Energization of Wires Owner’s Facilities The DG Owner’s generator must not energize the Wires Owner’s facilities when the Wires Owner’s facilities are de-energized. 3.3.17 Protection from Electromagnetic Interference The influence of electromagnetic interference (EMI) must not result in a change in state or misoperation of the interconnection facility. 3.3.18 Surge Withstand Performance The interconnection facility must have the capability to withstand voltage and current surges in accordance with the environments described in IEEE/ANSI C62.41 or C37.90.1. 3.3.19 Synchronization Connection must be prevented when the DG Owner’s synchronous generator and/or power system is operating outside of the following limits: Aggregate Ratings of Generation Frequency Difference Voltage Difference (%) (Hz) Phase Angle Difference (degrees) (kVA) 0-500 10 20 >500 – 1500 0.2 5 15 >1500 3.4 0.3 0.1 3 10 Typical Interconnection Requirements While the typical interconnection requirements for safely operating the DG Owner’s generation facility in parallel with the Wires Owner’s distribution system are specified below, specific interconnection locations and conditions may require more restrictive protective settings or hardware, especially when exporting power to the Wires Owner’s system. The Wires Owner must make these deviations known to the DG Owner as soon as possible. An example of one such restrictive area for DG interconnection is with utility secondary network systems. The DG Owner will need to work closely with the Wires Owner to determine whether interconnection and operation within a specific network system is possible. Page 26 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Protective relays, electric conversion devices and other devices can comply with this Guide by demonstrating the required protective function, as specified in Tables 1, 2 and 3. 3.4.1 Single-Phase Generators Table 1 shows the protective function requirements for singlephase generators. Inverter-type generators must meet the criteria established in IEEE 929 Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems, and be certified to UL 1741 and CSA 22.2 #107.1. 3.4.2 Three-Phase Synchronous Generators Table 2 shows the protective function requirements for threephase synchronous generators of various sizes. The DG Owner’s generator circuit breakers must be three-phase devices with electronic or electromechanical control. The DG Owner is solely responsible for properly synchronizing its generator with the Wires Owner’s system. The DG Owner is also responsible for ensuring that the interconnection protection device settings coordinate with the Wires Owner’s protective device settings. 3.4.3 Three Phase induction Generators and Three-Phase Inverter Generators Table 2 shows the protective function requirements for threephase induction and inverter generators of various sizes. Induction generators may be connected and brought up to synchronous speed (as an induction motor) if it can be demonstrated that the initial voltage drop measured on the Wires Owner’s side at the PCC is within the flicker limits. Otherwise, the DG Owner may be required to install hardware or utilize other techniques to bring voltage fluctuations to acceptable levels. Inverter generators must meet the applicable criteria in IEEE 929 and be certified to UL 1741 and CSA 22.2 #107.1. Line-commutated inverters do not require synchronizing equipment. Self-commutated inverters, whether of the utilityinteractive type or stand-alone type, must be used in parallel with the Wires Owner’s system only with synchronizing equipment. Direct Current (DC) generation must not be directly paralleled with the Wires Owner’s system. Page 27 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.4.4 Generators Paralleling for Six Cycles or Less (Closed Transition Switching) Table 3 shows the protective function requirements for generators 10 MW or less which parallel with the Wires Owner’s system for six cycles or less. Generators meeting this description must apply for Parallel Operation, sign a Joint Operating Agreement, sign an Operating Schedule and meet all other requirements of this Guide. 3.4.5 Mitigation of Protection Scheme Failure Relays with self-diagnostic features provide information on the integrity of the protection scheme and should be used whenever possible. The protection scheme must be designed by a qualified engineer or a competent technical person, working with the Wires Owner’s engineers, to ensure that the self-diagnostic feature is integrated into the overall protection scheme for the safe and reliable operation of the distribution system. Depending on the scheme and its design, where relays with the self-diagnostic feature do not trip the appropriate breaker(s), sufficient redundant or backup protection must be provided for the distribution system. The malfunctioning relay must also send a signal to notify operating personnel to investigate the malfunction. Older electro-mechanical relays are generally not equipped with self-diagnostic features. Design of protection and control schemes must therefore be of a fail-safe nature to maintain the integrity of the protection in the event there is a malfunction. 3.4.6 Maximum Generator Power to be Exported Where the DG Owner’s generation capacity exceeds the loadcarrying capacity of the generator interconnection at the PCC, or exceeds the capacity of the Wire Owner’s system connected to the generator, the DG Owner must install protection to limit the amount of export power to the rated capacity of the Wires Owner’s system or to the contracted export amount, whichever is less. Page 28 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 3.4.7 Interconnection Protection Approval The DG Owner must provide the Wires Owner with complete documentation of the proposed interconnection protection scheme for review against the requirements of this Guide, and for potential impacts to the Wires Owner’s system. The documentation should include: A completed application form; An overall description of how the protection will function; A detailed Single Line Diagram; Identification details of the protection components (i.e., manufacturer, model, etc.); The protection component settings (i.e., trigger levels and time values); and Identification details of the disconnect switch (i.e. manufacturer, model and associated certification). The DG Owner must revise and re-submit the protection information for any proposed modification. Page 29 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 4.0 Construction 4.1 General The DG Owner’s generation facility must be constructed and installed to meet all applicable regulations. All permitting and safety code requirements must be completed and copies of inspection reports provided to the Wires Owner prior to energizing the PCC. All Single Line Diagrams provided to the Wires Owner must be drawn in accordance with IEEE standards and conventions, and stamped by a licensed, professional engineer assuming responsibility for the design. Page 30 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 5.0 Metering 5.1 General Metering must comply with Measure Canada requirements and the latest revisions of the TA (Transmission Administrator of Alberta Ltd.) Measurement System Standard, where applicable, and be approved by the Wires Owner. The primary side (i.e., the side connected to the Wires Owner’s distribution system) of the interconnection transformer is the Measuring Billing Point for distributed generation export conditions, and the low side (i.e., the side connected to the DG Owner’s generation facility) of the interconnection transformer is the Measuring Billing Point for distributed generation import conditions. In all cases where the metering equipment is installed on the low side of the interconnecting transformer, transformer loss compensation must be installed in the meter for generation export conditions. The metering equipment must be: Suitable for use in the environmental conditions reasonably expected to occur at the installation site over the course of a typical year; and Appropriate for the power system characteristics reasonably expected to exist at the installation site under all power system conditions and events. 5.2 Meter Requirements An interval meter must be installed at all distributed generation sites, with exceptions as outlined in the Settlement System Code of Alberta. The meter must: Be Measurement Canada approved under Section 9(1), Section 9(2) or Section 9(3) of the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act; Be verified and sealed in accordance with the Electricity and Gas Inspections Act, subject to the terms and conditions of any applicable dispensation(s); Be capable of maintaining the interval boundaries within 60 seconds of the hour and every quarter hour thereafter. Measure all quantities required to determine active energy and reactive energy transferred in the required directions at the Measuring Billing Point; Provide a separate register to maintain the continuously cumulative readings of the active energy and reactive energy transferred in the required directions at the Measuring Billing Point; Retain readings and, if applicable, all clock functions for at least 14 days in the absence of line power; Have an accuracy class rating for active energy measurement that equals or exceeds the values specified in Appendix I, Schedule 1, for Page 31 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection non-dispensated metering equipment and Schedule 2 for dispensated metering equipment; Have an accuracy class rating for reactive energy measurement that equals or exceeds the values specified in Appendix I, Schedule 1 for non-dispensated metering equipment and Schedule 2 for dispensated metering equipment; and Have “LOSS COMPENSATED” clearly indicated, if the meter is internally compensated for line or transformer losses. 5.3 Measurement Transformers The applicable winding(s) of the current and potential instrument transformers must: Be Measurement Canada approved under Section 9(1), Section 9(2) or Section 9(3) of the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act; Be burdened to a degree that does not compromise the accuracy required by this Guide; and Have an accuracy class rating that equals or exceeds the values specified in Appendix I, Schedule 1 for non-dispensated metering equipment. 5.4 Remote Communications Equipment Remote communications equipment may or may not be an integral part of the meter or the recorder, but must incorporate protocol schemes suitable for the type/nature of the communications media/path that will prevent data corruption during interval data transmission. 5.5 Password Protection Two or more levels of password protection are required for each meter data collection agency: one for full access to set time functions; and one for read-only access to interval data, the event log and meteorological quantities. 5.6 Safety Requirements The installation must conform to: Measurement Canada Standard Drawings; CSA Standard C22.2; and ANSI/IEEE C57.13-1983 IEEE Guide for Grounding of Instrument Transformer Secondary Circuits and Cases. Page 32 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 6.0 Inspection The DG Owner must maintain a quality control and inspection program satisfactory to and approved by the Wires Owner. In addition to the DG Owner’s normal inspection procedures, the Wires Owner reserves the right to witness the manufacturing or fabrication of, or any work involving, the subject equipment; to inspect materials, documents, manufacturing operations and installation procedures; to witness tests and to evaluate the results of non-destructive examinations. The DG Owner must supply the Wires Owner with a complete set of detailed drawings to assist the Wires Owner in its inspection of equipment during testing. Page 33 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 7.0 Testing 7.1 General The DG Owner must notify the Wires Owner in writing at least two weeks prior to the initial energization and start-up testing of the DG Owner’s generation facility, and the Wires Owner may witness the testing of any equipment and protective systems associated with the interconnection. The tests and testing procedures must generally align with the requirements specified in IEEE P1547. This section is divided into type testing and verification testing: Type testing is performed or witnessed once by an independent testing laboratory for a specific protection package. Once a package meets the type testing criteria described in this section, the design is accepted by the Wires Owner. If any changes are made to the hardware, software, firmware or verification test procedures, the manufacturer must notify the independent testing laboratory to determine what, if any, parts of the type testing must be repeated. Failure of the manufacturer to notify the independent testing laboratory of any changes may result in withdrawal of approval and disconnection of units installed after the change was made. Verification testing is site-specific, periodic testing to assure continued acceptable performance. These testing procedures apply only to devices and packages associated with protection of the interconnection between the generation facility and the Wires Owner’s system. Interconnection protection is usually limited to voltage relays, frequency relays, synchronizing relays, reverse current or power relays and anti-islanding schemes. Testing of relays or devices associated specifically with protection or control of generating equipment is recommended, but not required unless the devices impact the interconnection protection. Protection testing must include procedures to functionally test all protective components of the protection scheme, up to and including tripping of the generator and/or PCC. The testing must verify all protective set points and relay/breaker trip timing. At the time of production, all interconnecting equipment and discrete relays must meet or exceed the requirements of ANSI /IEEE C62.411991 Recommended Practices on Surge Voltages in Low Voltage AC Power Circuits or C37.90.1 1989 IEEE Standard Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Protective Relays and Relay Systems. If C62.41-1991 is used, the surge types and parameters must be applied to the equipment’s intended insulation location, as applicable. The manufacturer’s verification test and the appropriate dielectric test specified in UL 1741 must also be performed. Page 34 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 7.2 Type Testing All interconnection equipment must include a type testing procedure as part of the documentation. The type testing must determine if the protection settings meet the requirements of this Guide. Prior to type testing, all batteries must be disconnected or removed for a minimum of 10 minutes. This test will verify the system has a non-volatile memory and that the protection settings are not lost. A test must also be performed to determine that the failure of any battery used to supply trip power will result in an automatic shutdown. All inverters must be non-islanding, as defined by IEEE 929. Inverters must, at the time of production, meet or exceed the requirements of IEEE 929 and UL 1741. 7.3 Verification Testing Prior to parallel operation of a generation facility, or whenever the interconnection hardware or software is changed, verification testing must be performed. The verification test must be performed by a qualified individual in accordance with the manufacturer’s published test procedure. Qualified individuals include: licensed, professional engineers; factory-trained and certified technicians and licensed electricians experienced in testing protective equipment. The Wires Owner reserves the right to witness the verification test or to require written certification that the test was performed. Verification testing must be performed annually. All verification tests prescribed by the manufacturer or developed by the DG Owner and agreed to by the Wires Owner must be performed. The DG Owner is responsible to maintain the verification test reports for inspection by the Wires Owner. Inverter generator operation must be verified annually, by operating the load break disconnect switch and verifying that the generation facility automatically shuts down and does not restart for five minutes after the switch is closed. Any system that depends on a battery for trip power must be checked for proper voltage and logged monthly. Once every four years, the battery must either be replaced or a discharge test performed. Page 35 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 7.4 Protective Function Testing Protection settings that have been changed after factory testing must be field verified to show that the device trips at the measured (actual) voltage and frequency. Tests must be performed using secondary injection, applied waveforms or a simulated utility. Alternatively, if none of the preceding tests can reasonably be done, a settings adjustment test can be performed if the unit provides discrete readouts of the settings. The non-islanding function, if available, must be checked by operating a load break switch to verify that the interconnection facility ceases to energize its output terminals and does not restart for the required time delay after the switch is closed. A reverse power or minimum power function, if used to meet the interconnection requirements, must be tested using secondary injection techniques. Alternatively, this function can be tested by means of a local load trip test or by adjusting the DG output and local loads to verify that the applicable non-export criterion (i.e., reverse power or minimum power) is met. 7.5 Verification of Final Protective Settings Test If protective function settings have been adjusted as part of the commissioning process, then, at the completion of the adjustment, the DG Operating Authority must confirm all devices are set to the Wires Owner’s approved settings. Interconnection protective devices that have not previously been tested as part of the interconnection facility with their associated instrument transformers, or that are wired in the field, must be given an in-service test during commissioning. This test is to verify proper wiring, polarity, sensing signals, CT/PT ratios and operation of the measuring circuits. For protective devices with built-in metering functions that report current and voltage magnitudes and phase angles or magnitudes of current, voltage, and real and reactive power, the metered values can be compared to the expected values. Alternatively, calibrated portable ammeters, voltmeters and phase-angle meters may be used. Page 36 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 7.6 Hardware and Software Changes Whenever changes are made to interconnection hardware or software that can affect the functions listed below, the potentially affected functions must be retested: Over-voltage and under-voltage. Over-frequency and under-frequency. Non-islanding function (if applicable). Reverse or minimum power function (if applicable). Inability to energize dead line. Time delay restart after Wires Owner outage. Fault detection, if used. Synchronizing controls (if applicable). To ensure that commissioning tests are performed correctly, the Wires Owner may wish to witness the tests and receive written certification of the results. Refer to Appendix H for an example of a protective settings commissioning document. 7.7 Switchgear and Metering The Wires Owner reserves the right to witness the testing of installed switchgear and metering. The DG Owner must notify the Wires Owner at least 10 days in advance of any testing. Page 37 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 8.0 Data Requirements The following table identifies the drawings and data the DG Owner is required to submit to the Wires Owner when applying for interconnection to the Wire’s Owner’s system. Drawing/Data Proposal Manufacturer’s equipment data sheet Control schematic Single Line Diagram indicating proposed protection settings Description of protection scheme Generator nameplate schedule Fuse and protective relay coordination study & settings Current transformer characteristic curve Commissioning report c/w protection settings Plot plan showing location of lockable, visible disconnect switch Approval* Verified X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X *The minimum time requirement for reviewing this information is generally 10 working days. Page 38 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 9.0 Marking And Tagging The nameplate on the switchgear must include: the manufacturer’s name; and the manufacturer’s serial number. In addition, the disconnect switch must be clearly marked “DG Disconnect Switch” and tagged with an identification number approved by the Wires Owner. Page 39 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection 10.0 Maintenance All of the equipment, from the generator up to and including the PCC, is the responsibility of the DG Owner. The DG Owner must maintain the equipment to accepted industry standards, in particular the Part 1, paragraph 2-300 of the CEC. Failure to do so may result in disconnection of the generator. The DG Owner must present the planned maintenance procedures and a maintenance schedule for the interconnection protection equipment to the Wires Owner, and keep records of such maintenance. Maintenance procedures for the Wires Owner’s system up to the PCC must be in compliance with the Wires Owner’s published “Guidelines for Connecting Generators to the Wires Owner’s Distribution System.” Page 40 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Table 1: Interconnection Protective Function Requirements1 Single-Phase Connected to Secondary or Primary System Generator Size 50 kW or less Interconnect Disconnect Device X Generator Disconnect Device X Over-Voltage Trip X Under-Voltage Trip X Over/Under Frequency Trip X Overcurrent X Synchronizing Check 2 Manual or Automatic Anti-islanding protection Notes: 1. X means required. 2. For synchronous and other types of generators with stand-alone capability. 3. Exporting to the Wires Owner’s system may require additional operational/protection devices, and will require coordination of operations with the Wires Owner. 4. Switchgear standards for 50 kW or less and less than 750 volts will be relaxed to fixed-type breakers. Page 41 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Table 2: Interconnection Protective Function Requirements5 Three-Phase Connected to Secondary or Primary System LARGE MEDIUM Generator size classifications: 10 kW or less SMALL 10 kW 200 kW 200 kW 500 kW 500 2,000 kW 2,000 12,500 kW 12 500 50 000 kW Device # Interconnect Disconnect Device X X X X X X Generator Disconnect Device X X X X X X 25 Synchronizing Check(note 1) 27 Under-Voltage Trip 32 Power Direction/Reverse Power Y Man. or Auto. Qty: (1) Y Qty: (3) Y(note 2) Qty: (1) Negative Phase Sequence Overcurrent (Phase unbalance, reverse phase sequence) 51V Overcurrent, voltage restrained (Optional, to prevent nuisance trips) Qty: 50/51 Inst/Timed Overcurrent Qty: 50N Instantaneous Neutral Overcurrent Qty: Ground Over-Voltage Trip(note 6) or Qty: 51G Ground Over-Current Trip(note 6) Y Man. or Auto. (1) Y (3) Y(note 2) (1) 46 TT X (1) X (3) Y Man. or Auto. (1) Y (3) Y(note 2) (1) X X (1) X (3) X (1) X (3) X (1) Y Automatic (1) Y (3) X(note 3) (1) X (1) X (3) X (3) X (1) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) X (1) X (1) X (1) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) Y(note 4) X (1) Y (3) Y (3) X (1) Y(note 2) (3)/(1) Y (3) Y Y (3) Y (3) Y (3) Y (3) Y (3) Y (3) X (1) Y (3) Y (3) Y(note 2) (3)/(1) Y (3) Y Y(note 2) (3)/(1) Y (3) Y Y(note 2) (3)/(1) Y (3) Y Y(note 2) (3)/(1) Y (3) Y Qty: 59T Qty: Qty: 60 Y (3) Y (3) Voltage Balance Relay 67/67N Directional Overcurrent 81/O, 81/UOver/Under Frequency Trip Anti-islanding for inverters IEEE 929 and UL 1741 X (1) X (3) X (3) X (1) Y(note 4) Transfer Trip(note 4) (Based on impact to IPP and utility) Telemetry data communication Instantaneous Over-Voltage Trip (For ferroresonance conditions) Over-Voltage Trip Y Automatic (1) Y (3) X (1) Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR)1 59I Y Automatic (1) Y (3) X(note 3) (1) X (1) X (3) X (3) X (1) Y(note 2) Qty: (3)/(1) Y Qty: (3) Y Page 42 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Table 2 (Continued): Interconnection Protective Function Requirements5 Three-Phase Connected to Secondary or Primary System Notes: 1. For synchronous and other types of generators with stand-alone capability. 2. Only required on synchronous generators that are for on-site load only. If NOT exporting and generator is less than minimum load of DG Owner or if always exporting, then relay not required except as noted. 3. If exporting, frequency blocks under trip with agreement of Wires Owner. 4. Transfer trip with fail-safe design required for synchronous machines. 5. Exporting to the Wires Owner may require additional operational/protection devices and coordination of operations with the Wires Owner. 6. Selection depends on grounding system, if required by Wires Owner. 7. Quantity shown in brackets below (e.g., (3)). 8. Both X and Y are required by this guideline.X is IEEE Std 242 Protection Requirement. 9. Three-directional overcurrent relays may be substituted for reverse power relay. 10. Above to be in accordance with the Canadian Electrical Code. Page 43 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Part 2: Guide for Generator Interconnection Table 3: Interconnection Protective Function Requirements Generators Connected to Secondary or Primary System For 6 cycles or less (Closed Transition Switching) Generator Size 10 MW or less Interconnect Disconnect Device X Generator Disconnect Device X Over-Voltage Trip X Under-Voltage Trip X Over/Under Frequency Trip X Overcurrent X 1 X Ground Over-Voltage Trip Or 1 Ground Over-Current Trip Synchronizing Check2 Manual or Automatic Notes: 1. Selection depends on grounding system, if required by the Wires Owner. 2. For synchronous and other types of generators with stand-alone capability. Page 44 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide Appendices In this part… Appendix A: Appendix B: Appendix C: Appendix D: Appendix E Appendix F: Appendix G: Appendix H: Appendix I: Approval Process Block Diagram Information Required From DG Owner Information Provided by Wires Owner Joint Operating Agreement Applicable Codes and Standards Single Line Diagram For Wye-Delta ............ Interconnection Single Line Diagram For Wye-Wye Interconnection Protective Settings Commissioning Document Accuracy Schedules for Metering Equipment Page 45 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix A: Approval Process Block Diagram Overview of Approval Process for Connecting Distributed Generation (DG) to the Distribution System Note: Process assumes DG Owner has internal project approval Operating Agreement from Box 5 Supply requested information (See Appendix B.) 1 Notify Wires Owner of project Request proposal for 2 interconnection from Wires Owner Receive proposal and cost estimate To Box 13 Operating Agreement Yes 12 Wires Owner and DG Owner submit application to TA with DG Owner's $10,000 refundable fee 5 13 No Complete and submit 14 full AEUB / AENN applications Complete and submit 15 one-page application to AEUB G-XXXX Receive approval 16 from AEUB / AENV 4 Comply with Wires Owner’s application process and payment schedule If > 1 MW 3 Approve Wires Owner’s proposal 11 Notify TA if DG impacts transmission system 17 Receive approval from AEUB / AENV (See Note A.) Submit Measurement Canada (MC) application to register First DG site only Accepted Contact Power Pool, 27 submit Pool Participation application for $150 19 Receive registration number and certificate 6 Provide copy of AEUB / AENV approval and connection orders to Wires Owner 18 Purchase MC revenueapproved meter Once per company, renew annually Send in Pool Asset Addition application 28 Pool issues Asset ID# 29 Asset ID to By site 20 Wires Owner Accepted Install meter to MC installation standards Meter electrical energy Install and commission DG 8 facilities with Wires Owner’s approval and participation Commence commercial operation 22 Retrieve revenue metering data 7 Execute any agreements =< 5MW 21 23 Real time monitoring 30 not normally required 9 Submit metering data to LSA 10 DG Owner sends signing sheet from Joint Operating Agreement to AEUB 24 Submit metering data 25 to TA TA refunds fee to DG 26 Owner > 5 MW Real time monitoring 31 required; DG asset is dispatchable by the Power Pool Note A: Wires Owners may have different processes for the following: Initial application. Detail design and studies. Construction of the interconnection. Necessary approvals from the AEUB / AENV. Execution of Joint Operating Agreement. Tariff payment. Page 46 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Notes on the Approval Process Power Pool To sell electric energy through the Power Pool of Alberta, a DG Owner must become a Pool Participant. This involves signing a Participant contract, paying trading charges and signing an agreement with the Transmission Administrator. Importers and exporters must also demonstrate that they have service agreements for transmission between Alberta and the adjoining province, state or territory. Joint Operating Agreement A generic Joint Operating Agreement is provided in Appendix C. The DG Owner must contact the Wires Owner to negotiate a Joint Operating Agreement for the specific interconnection. AEUB Approval For AEUB procedures, access the AEUB website at www.eub.ab.ca. Page 47 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix B: Information Required From DG Owner The DG Owner must submit detailed information for the Wires Owner to design, construct, operate and maintain their portion of the interconnection. The required information may include the following: Information Requirements 1) Required at Application Required During Design DG OWNER'S CONTACT NAMES AND ADDRESSES a) Company name ___________________________ X b) Contact for commercial terms: X Name/Title ________________________________ Address ___________________________________ Phone/Fax ________________________________ c) Contact for engineering design: X Name/Title ________________________________ Address ___________________________________ Phone/Fax ________________________________ d) Contact for operating terms: X Name/Title ________________________________ Address ___________________________________ Phone/Fax ________________________________ 2) GENERAL INFORMATION a) Detailed map showing the proposed plan location Attached X b) Site plan showing the arrangement of major equipment Attached X Page 48 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices c) Diagram showing the voltage and current rating of each component X Attached 3) OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS a) Indicate how the facility will operate. X The facility is intended to sell electric energy to the Power Pool. The facility will consume electric energy services from the electric system. 4) GENERATOR a) Type X Synchronous Induction b) Manufacturer____________________ Inverter Model_____________ c) Nominal rating X X _____________ kW _____________ kVA _____________ Volts d) Single-Phase Three-Phase X e) Governor droop ______________ % f) Generator connection configuration Delta X X Wye g) Generator grounding X h) Impedances (positive, negative and zero sequence) X Direct axis transient _________________________ Direct axis subtransient _______________________ Quadrature axis transient _____________________ Quadrature axis subtransient ___________________ 5) PRIME MOVER a) Type__________________________ X b) Manufacturer____________________ X c) Model__________________________ X Page 49 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices d) Rating ___________________ e) Inertia constant _____________ 6) X X POWER FACTOR REGULATOR a) Limits of range of reactive power X Lagging (out) ______________ VAr Leading (in) ______________ VAr b) Accuracy tolerance of setting____________________ 7) X VOLTAGE REGULATOR a) Voltage regulator setting range ________to _________ Volts b) Voltage regulator setting tolerance _________% 8) X X COMPENSATOR (IF APPLICABLE) a) Type of input(s)____________________ b) Compensating resistance(s)________ reactance(s)________ 9) X X DG OWNER – SUPPLIED TRANSFORMERS a) Rating X Base __________ KVA Fan rating _____________ Cooling type ________________ b) High Voltage Winding X _____________ V nominal voltage _____________ Connection Grounded Ungrounded N/A c) Low Voltage Winding X _____________ V nominal voltage _____________ Connection Grounded Ungrounded N/A Page 50 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices d) Tertiary voltage winding (if applicable) X _____________ V nominal voltage _____________ Connection Grounded Ungrounded N/A e) Impedances X H-X %________% H-Y %________% base _________kVA X-Y %________% f) base _________kVA base _________kVA Tap changer X Onload Offload None Tap chart attached g) Instrument transformers (if applicable) Multi-ratio Yes (List Ratios Available) X No Proposed ratio ________________ Accuracy class ________________ 10) INTERCONNECTION PROTECTION a) Complete and accurate protection diagrams X Attached b) Description of the proposed protection schemes X Attached c) Diagrams X Single line Schematic Wiring d) Interconnection X Verify interconnection functionality Site test and settings e) Maintenance plans for the: X Interconnection protection devices Interconnection interrupting devices Page 51 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 11) COMPLIANCE WITH SAFETY CODES ACT Permit or equivalent 12) X METERING 2 Element 3 Element X Meter service provider ______________________ X Meter data manager ________________________ X Asset ID # _________________________________ X Page 52 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Modeling Information In some cases, a generator (or the aggregate generation on a line) is large enough that adjacent customers or the dynamic stability of the Wires Owner’s distribution system could be affected. The DG Owner is responsible for the cost of any required transient or dynamic stability studies, and the studies must be done in a manner suitable to, and approved by, the Wires Owner. DG Owners are responsible for ensuring the data they submit provides an adequate mathematical representation of the facility’s electric behavior. If the data is not available prior to purchasing equipment, it must be submitted as soon as it becomes available. The studies must accurately determine: 1. The impact of the DG Owner’s facility on adjacent customers of the Wires Owner. 2. The dynamic stability, in aggregate, of the Wires Owner’s system as an interconnected system within the WSCC. Data may be supplied by the manufacturer or acquired directly by testing. It must include generator characteristics (i.e., speed, reactance, resistance, excitation system etc.) and governor characteristics (i.e., lead time/lag time constants, valve or gate opening data etc.). The information requirements vary for induction generators and inverter generators, and for hydro or steam systems. Page 53 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix C: Joint Operating Agreement This template is generic. Each Wires Owner will use their own specific format. INTERCONNECTION and OPERATING AGREEMENT between __________________________________ (the DG Owner) and __________________________________ (the Wires Owner) This Agreement provides for the safe and orderly operation of the electrical facilities interconnecting the DG Owner’s generation facility at (land location or description of project) and the electrical distribution system owned by the Wires Owner. This Agreement does not supersede any requirements outlined in Government Regulations such as (but not limited to) the Alberta Electric and Communication Utility Code, the Canadian Electrical Code and the Occupational Health and Safety Act; nor does it supersede any terms of the Commercial Contract between the DG Owner and the Wires Owner. 1. Intent of Parties: It is the intent of (the DG Owner) to generate for sale to the Power Pool of Alberta up to the maximum available power, and to dispatch the amount of power produced at their discretion. It is the intent of the Wires Owner to operate the distribution system to maintain a high level of service to their customers and to maintain a high level of power quality. It is the intent of both parties to operate the facilities in a way that ensures the safety of the public and their employees. 2. Operating Authority: The Operating Authority is the person identified by name or job title responsible to establish operating procedures and standards within their organization. The Operating Authority shall ensure that timely updates are made to this document to reflect any changes to system operating characteristics, disconnect devices and Single Line Diagrams referenced in this document. The Operating Authorities for the DG Owner and for the Wires Owner shall ensure that the operators of the generation facility and the distribution system are competent in the operation of the electrical systems and are aware of the provisions of any operating agreements and regulations relating to the safe operation of electrical power systems. The Operating Authority for (the DG Owner) is (name or title of person designated the Operating Authority, their address and phone numbers). The Operating Authority for the Wires Owner is (name or title of person designated the Operating Authority, their address and phone numbers). Page 54 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 3. Operator in Charge: The Operator in Charge is the person identified by name or job title responsible for the real time operation of all electrical facilities related to the interconnection and owned by their organization. The Operator in Charge for (the DG Owner) is (name or title of person designated the Operator in Charge, their address and phone numbers). The Operator in Charge for the Wires Owner is (name or title of person designated the Operator in Charge, their address and phone numbers). 4. Description: (The DG Owner’s) facilities consist of a (size), (type), (connection) generator connected to the distribution system through the main bus at the facility. (The DG Owner) owns and is responsible for the maintenance and operation of all facilities on the generator side of (the Point of Common Coupling). The Wires Owner’s distribution system consists of 25 kV line (line number) and a (transformer size), (transformer connection designation) transformer. The Wires Owner owns and is responsible for the operation of all facilities on the distribution side of (the Point of Common Coupling). The Point of Common Coupling is designated as (description of Point of Common Coupling), and is identified on the attached Single Line Diagram. The (breaker, switch etc.) (switch number) will be used as the main disconnect point for the facility, and is owned and operated by (the DG Owner or the Wires Owner). This switch (does/does not) have load-break capability and therefore (can/cannot) be operated while the generation facility is producing or consuming power. The generation facility is designed to operate connected to the grid, with synchronizing facilities provided on the DG Owner’s breaker (breaker number). In the absence of outstanding clearances between the Operators in Charge, notice is not required to be given to the Wires Owner prior to synchronization taking place. It is recognized by (the DG Owner) that there are no synchronization schemes in place on the Wires Owner’s system, and that the (upstream distribution facility) contains automatic equipment that will provide for voltage regulation or automatic reclosure under some conditions. (Insert description of any special blocking or protection schemes.) The generator is capable of controlling either voltage or power factor, and is normally set to control (voltage or power factor) to (setting, tolerance) at the generator terminals. (Islanded capabilities to be identified here also, if any). 5. Suspension of Interconnection: It is intended that the interconnection will not compromise the Wires Owner’s protection or operational requirements. The operation of the (DG Owner’s) facilities and the quality of electric energy supplied by (the DG Owner) shall meet the standards specified in Part 2 of the Alberta Distributed Generation Interconnection Guide and any further standards identified by the Wires Owner. If the operation of the (DG Owner’s) facilities or quality of electric energy supplied does not meet the standards as specified, then the Wires Owner will notify (the DG Owner) to take reasonable and expedient corrective action. The Wires Owner shall have the right to disconnect the (DG Owner’s) facilities until compliance is reasonably demonstrated. Notwithstanding, the Wires Owner may, in its sole discretion, disconnect the (DG Owner’s) generation facility from the distribution system without notice if the operation of the generation facility may be or may become dangerous to life and property. Page 55 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 6. Safe Work Planning: Safe work planning practices such as pre-job plans and tailboard conference procedures shall be followed whenever both parties are involved in work on the interconnected system. Nothing in this document should be interpreted as altering the intent of the Wires Owner’s safe practices manual or safe operating procedures. Any contradictions are to be identified and resolved prior to work commencing. Safe work routines described in Division D of the Electrical and Communication Utility Systems Regulations (AECUC) shall be followed when providing isolation for work on any part of the interconnected system. 7. Maintenance Outages: Maintenance outages will occasionally be required on the Wires Owner’s distribution system and the (DG Owner’s) facilities. Both parties are required to provide as much notice as possible and plan to minimize downtime. It is recognized that in some emergency cases, such notice may not be possible. Outages shall be coordinated by the Operators in Charge of the respective facilities. 8. Access: The Wires Owner shall have access to the (DG Owner’s) facilities for maintenance, operating and meter reading purposes. The Wires Owner may inspect the (DG Owner’s) facilities, and (the DG Owner) may inspect the Wires Owner’s facilities. Access or inspections shall be arranged by the Operators in Charge of the respective facilities. 9. Revision and Approval: This Agreement does not expire. Either party may cancel the Agreement with reason, after giving notice to the Operating Authority designated by the other party. APPROVED by: Wires Owner Operating Authority DG Owner Operating Authority Date Date Page 56 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix D: Information Provided by Wires Owner After receiving the application for interconnection, the Wires Owner must provide the following information to the DG Owner, on request: 1. Single Line Diagram or maps of the distribution system to the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). 2. Minimum and maximum 60 Hz source impedances (positive-sequence, negativesequence and zero-sequence) at the PCC. 3. Maximum and minimum normal and emergency system operating voltage ranges at the PCC. 4. Harmonic impedance envelope at the PCC. 5. Planning, operating and reliability criteria, standards and policies. 6. The results of a planning study documenting the availability of the requested amount of system capacity. 7. Cost estimates and time schedule to build the upstream facilities. 8. Clearing and reclosing times for single-phase and multiple-phase faults occurring on the distribution system. 9. Characteristics and settings of protection on the distribution system. 10. Costs of studies and any required changes to the distribution system. Some or all of this information will be required by the DG Owner to properly design the interconnection protection. The Wires Owner will identify when the costs of producing this information are to be assigned to the DG Owner. Page 57 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix E: Applicable Codes and Standards The distributed generation (DG) and interconnection facilities must conform to this Guide and to the applicable sections of the codes and standards listed below. When the stated version of the code or standard is superseded by an approved revision, then that revision shall apply. Specific types of interconnection schemes, DG technologies, and distribution systems may be subject to additional requirements, standards, recommended practices or guidelines external to this Guide. Determining the applicability and hierarchy of those requirements in relation to the requirements herein is beyond the scope of this Guide. Therefore, the following list of codes and standards is not to be regarded as all-inclusive, and users of this Guide must address related concerns. Power Quality Standards 1. ANSI C84.1-1989 American National Standards for Electric Power Systems and Equipment Ratings (60 Hertz). Establishes nominal voltage ratings and operating tolerances for 60 Hz electric power systems from 100 V through 230 kV. 2. IEEE Std. 493-1900 IEEE Recommended Practice for Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (IEEE Gold Book). Chapter 9 deals specifically with voltage sag analysis and methods of reporting sag characteristics graphically and statistically. 3. IEEE Std 519-1992 IEEE Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems. 4. IEEE Std. 1100-1992 IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment (IEEE Emerald Book). 5. IEEE Std 1159-1995 IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. 6. IEEE Std 1250-1995 IEEE Guide for Service to Equipment Sensitive to Momentary Voltage Disturbances. In addition to the power quality standards, the following standards are applicable to the interconnection of generation facilities to the Wires Owner’s distribution system: 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. IEEE Std. 100 - 1997 IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. IEEE Std 315-1975 (Reaffirmed 1993) ANSI Y32.3-1975 (Reaffirmed 1989) CSA Z99-1975 Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams (including Reference Designation Letters). IEEE Std 929-1988 IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Residential and Intermediate Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. C37.1 ANSI/IEEE Standard Definitions, Specifications and Analysis of Systems Used for Supervisory Control, Data Acquisition and Automatic Control. C37.2 IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers. C37.18 ANSI/IEEE Standard Enclosed Field Discharge Circuit Breakers for Rotating Electric Machinery. C37.20.1 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Switchgear. C37.20.3 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear. C37.24 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Radiation on Outdoor Metal-Enclosed Switchgear. C37.27 ANSI/IEEE Standard Application Guide for Low-Voltage AC Non-integrally Fused Power Circuit Breakers (Using Separately Mounted Current-Limiting Fuses). Page 58 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 17. C37.29 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Protectors Used in Enclosures. 18. C37.50 ANSI Standard Test Procedures for Low-Voltage AC Circuit Breakers Use In Enclosures. 19. C37.51 ANSI Standard Conformance Test Procedure for Metal Enclosed LowVoltage AC Power Circuit-Breaker Switchgear Assemblies. 20. C37.52 ANSI Standard Test Procedures for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Protectors Used in Enclosures. 21. C57.12 IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid Immersed Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers. 22. C57.12.13 Conformance Requirements for Liquid Filled Transformers Used in Unit Installations including Unit Substations. 23. C57.13.1 IEEE Guide for Field Testing of Relaying Current Transformers. 24. C57.13.2 IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Instrument Transformers. 25. C37.58 ANSI Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Indoor AC MediumVoltage Switches for Use in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear. 26. C37.90 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. Power Apparatus. C37.90.1 ANSI/IEEE Standard Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Protective Relays and Relay Systems. C37.90.2 ANSI/IEEE Standard Withstand Capability of Relay Systems to Radiated Electromagnetic Interference from Transceivers. C37.95 IEEE Guide for Protective Relaying of Utility Consumer Interconnections. C37.98 ANSI/IEEE Standard for Seismic Testing of Relays. IEC 1000-3-3 Limitation of Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker in Low-Voltage Supply Systems for Equipment with Rated Current Less than 16A. IEC1000-3-5 Limitation of Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker in Low-Voltage Supply Systems for Equipment with Rated Current Greater than 16A. UL1008 Transfer Switch Equipment. IEEE P1547, DRAFT Standard for Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems. Canadian Electrical Code, CSA no. C22-1, latest version.C22.2 No. 31- M89 (R1995) Switchgear Assemblies. Can/CSA - C22.2 No. 107.1-95 Commercial and Industrial Power Supplies. Can/CSA - C22.2 No. 1010.1-92 Safety Requirements For Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control and Laboratory Use. Can/CSA - C22.2 No. 144-M91 (R1997) Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters. C22.2 No. 193-M1983 (R1992) High-Voltage Full-Load Interrupter Switches. C22.2 No. 201-M1984 (R1992) Metal Enclosed High-Voltage Busways. C22.2 No. 229-M1988 (R1994) Switching and Metering Centres. CSA Standard CAN3 C235 83 Preferred Voltage Levels for AC Systems 0 to 50,000V. Alberta Electrical and Communication Utility Code (formerly the Alberta Electrical and Communication Utility System Regulation 44/1976 or future amendments). Measurement System Standard / Transmission Administrator Metering Standard GC301 Practices for Management and Transfer of Metered Data. C37.04-1999 IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis (ANSI/DoD). Page 59 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 45. C37.06-1997 American National Standard for Switchgear--AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis--Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities. 46. C37.09-1999 IEEE Standard Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis (ANSI/DoD). C37.010-1999 IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. C37.011-1994 IEEE Application Guide for Transient Recovery Voltage for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. C37.012-1979 (R1988) IEEE Application Guide for Capacitance Current Switching for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. C37.013-1997 IEEE Standard for AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit Breaker Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. C37.015-1993 IEEE Application Guide for Shunt Reactor Switching. C37.081-1981 (Reaff 1988) Guide for Synthetic Fault Testing of AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. C37.11-1997 IEEE Standard Requirements for Electrical Control for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on A Symmetrical Current Basis. 54. C37.13-1990 (R1995) IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures. 55. C37.14-1992 IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage DC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures. 56. C37.16-1997 American National Standard for Switchgear - Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers and AC Power Circuit Protectors-- Preferred Ratings, Related Requirements, and Application Recommendations. 57. C37.20.2-1999 IEEE Standard for Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear. 58. C37.23-1987 (R1991) IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Bus and Calculating Losses in Isolated-Phase Bus. 59. C37.30-1997 IEEE Standard Requirements for High-Voltage Switches. 60. C37.32-1996 American National Standard for Switchgear--High-Voltage Air Switches, Bus Supports, and Switch Accessories--Schedules of Preferred Ratings, Manufacturing Specifications, and Application Guide. 61. C37.34-1994 IEEE Standard Test Code for High-Voltage Air Switches. 62. C37.35-1995 IEEE Guide for the Application, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of High-Voltage Air Disconnecting and Load Interrupter Switches. 63. C37.36b-1990 IEEE Guide to Current Interruption with Horn-Gap Air Switches. 64. C37.37-1996 IEEE Standard for Loading Guide for AC High-Voltage Air Switches (in Excess of 1000 V). 65. C37.38-1989 IEEE Standard for Gas-Insulated, Metal-Enclosed Disconnecting, Interrupter, and Grounding Switches. 66. C37.42-1996 American National Standard for Switchgear--Distribution Cutouts and Fuse Links—Specifications. 67. C37.44-1981 (R1987) American National Standard Specifications for Distribution Oil Cutouts and Fuse Links. 68. C37.54-1996 American National Standard for Switchgear--Indoor Alternating-Current High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Applied as Removable Elements in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Assemblies--Conformance Test Procedures. 69. C37.55-1989 American National Standard for Switchgear--Metal-Clad Switchgear Assemblies--Conformance Test Procedures. Page 60 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices 70. C37.57-1990 American National for Switchgear--Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear Assemblies--Conformance Testing. 71. C37.66-1969 (Reaff 1988) American National Standard for Requirements for Oil72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. Filled Capacitor Switches for Alternating-Current Systems. C37.81-1989 (R1992) IEEE Guide for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E MetalEnclosed Power Switchgear Assemblies. C37.85-1989 (R1998) American National Standard for Switchgear--AlternatingCurrent High-Voltage Power Vacuum Interrupters-Safety Requirements for XRadiation Limits. ANSI/IEEE C37.90-1989 Surge Withstand And Fast Transient Tests. 120-1989 (Reaff-1997) IEEE Master Test Guide for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits. 1291-1993 IEEE Guide for Partial Discharge Measurement in Power Switchgear. IEEE Std C62.23-1995 Application Guide for Surge Protection of Electric Generating Plants. ANSI /IEEE C62.41-1991 Recommended Practices on Surge Voltages in LowVoltage AC Power Circuits. C57.13-1993 IEEE Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers. C57.13.3-1983 (R1991) IEEE Guide for the Grounding of Instrument Transformer Secondary Circuits and Cases. C57.98-1993 IEEE Guide for Transformer Impulse Tests. C57.19.100-1995 (R1997) IEEE Guide for Application of Power Apparatus Bushings. C57.110-1986 (R1992) IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents. C62.92.4-1991 IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems, Part IV – Distribution. IEEE Std 242-1986 Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. ANSI C12.20 Electricity Meters 0.2 And 0.5 Accuracy Classes. ANSI C62.1 Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits. ANSI C62.11 Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits. NEMA CC-1 Electric Power Connectors for Substations. NEMA LA-1 Surge Arresters. NEMA MG-1 Motors. Page 61 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix F: Single Line Diagram for Wye-Delta Interconnection PROTECTION LEGEND NOTES: 25 – Synchronism Check 27 – Under Voltage OIL OR ELECTRIC CIRCUIT RECLOSER 27R – Instantaneous Under Voltage 32 – Reverse Power Wires Owner OCR 40 – Loss of Field 46 – Negative Phase Sequence O/C 47 – Reverse phase Voltage 49 – Stator Winding Temperature 50/51 – Instantaneous/Timed Overcurrent 2. Required only if ferroresonance is possible. AIRBREAK [NOTE 1] S1 SOURCE TRANSFER TRIP TO IPP BREAKER A OR B [NOTE 5] TRANSFER TRIP TO IPP BREAKER A OR B [NOTE 5] 3. Required if 27 operating time is too slow for feeder faults. (3) (1) 50/51 50N 50N – Ground Overcurrent 51G – Neutral Overcurrent D 51V – Torque Controlled Overcurrent 59I – High Speed Overvoltage 59T – TimeOvervoltage 60 – Voltage Balance Relay 64F – Generator Field Ground 67 – DirectionalOvercurrent [NOTE 4] VISIBLE LOCKABLE SWITCH WITHIN 5M OF POINT OF COMMON COUPLING 1. Use one or other for simultaneous 3phase switching. Simultaneous 3-phase switching is not required for non-export static power converters or induction generators not susceptible to self-excitation. SHUNT TRIP RECLOSER [NOTE 9] 51G 4.Use one or other only if feeder unbalance can cause transformer overloading. 5. FOR EXPORT ONLY. For synchronous generators and generator susceptible to self excitation (induction & static power converters). 6. FOR NON-EXPORT ONLY; must sense both real and reactive power. Three 67 relays and one 67N relay may be required, as well. 7. To suppress a possible ferroresonance condition when the low voltage system is operated, generator must be effectively grounded, or solidly grounded. 8. Number and location of the metering points by commercial parameters. [NOTE 1] 9. Required if feeder load unbalance will overload transformer. 67N – Neutral Directional vercurrent O [NOTE 8] 81/O – Over Frequency A 81/U – Under Frequency 87 (G) – Differential Relay (Ground) [NOTE 8] [NOTE 8] LEGEND : (x) C DG Owner Number Required B INTERCONNECTION PROTECTION Metering Local Load Fuse Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR) Circuit Breaker 87 87G 49 51G NGR [NOTE 7] [NOTE 3] 51V G 64F 40 32 46 [NOTE 6] 47 59T 81/O 81/U [NOTE 6] 59I 67 [NOTE 2] 27 25 27R WIRES OWNER DG SLD FOR INTERCONNECTION THROUGH WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMER Manual Air Break Transformer 60 NOTE: PROTECTION SCHEMATIC SHOWN IS FOR LARGE 3-PHASE GENERATORS DATE BY OVER 12 500 KVA. REFER TO TABLE 2 FOR REQUIREMENTS ON SPECIFIC GENERATORS. 11/22/2001 SLD NO. 00-001 Page 62 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix G: Single Line Diagram For Wye-Wye Interconnection PROTECTION LEGEND NOTES: 25 – Synchronism Check OIL OR ELECTRIC CIRCUIT RECLOSER 27 – Under Voltage 27R – Instantaneous Under Voltage 32 – Reverse Power 1. Use one or other for simultaneous 3 pha se switc hing. Simultaneous 3 phase switching is not requir ed for non-expor t static power conver ter s or induc tion genera tors not susceptible to self -excitation. Wires Owner OCR 40 – Loss of Field 46 – Negative Phase Sequence O/C 47 – Reverse Phase Voltage 49 – Stator Winding Temperature 2. R ela y require d only if ferroresona nce is possible. AIRBREAK [NOTE 1] S1 SOURCE TRANSFER TRIP TO IPP BREAKER A OR B [NOTE 5] 3. R equired if 27 oper ating time is too slow for f eeder fa ults. TRANSFER TRIP TO IPP BREAKER A OR B [NOTE 5] 4.Use one or other only if feeder unbalance c an cause transform er overloading. 5. F OR EXPORT ONLY. For synchronous generator s and generator susce ptible to self excita tion (induc tion & static power conve rte rs) . 50/51 – Instantaneous/Timed Overcurrent 50N – Ground Overcurrent 6. F OR NON-EXPORT ONLY; must sense both rea l and r eactive power. Three 67 rela ys and one 67N r ela y may be re quired, as well. 51G – Neutral Overcurrent 51V – Torque Controlled Overcurrent 59I – High Speed Overvoltage 59T – Time Overvoltage 60 – Voltage Balance Relay 64F – Generator Field Ground 67 – Directional Overcurrent 7. Generator m ust be eff ectively gr ounded. With Wires Owner approval can also be resistance grounded at secondary system gr ound. Seconda ry system ground a nd generator ground are generally c om mon. [NOTE 4] VISIBLE LOCKABLE SWITCH WITHIN 5M OF POINT OF COMMON COUPLING 51G [NOTE 1] 8. Number a nd location of the metering points by comm ercial parame ter s. [NOTE 7] 67N – Neutral Directional Overcurrent [NOTE 8] A 81/O – Over Frequency 81/U – Under Frequency [NOTE 8] 87 (G) – Differential Relay (Ground) [NOTE 8] LEGEND: (x) Power Producer Number Required B INTERCONNECTION PROTECTION Metering [NOTE 3] Fuse Manual Air Break Transformer 51 49 Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR) Circuit Breaker C 51N G To system ground [NOTE 7] 51V Local Load 60 32 46 [NOTE 6] 59T 47 81/O 81/U [NOTE 6] 67 59I [NOTE 2] 64F ~ ~ 27 25 27R WIRES OWNER 40 DG SLD FOR INTERCONNECTION THROUGH WYE - WYE TRANSFORMER NOTE: PROTECTION SCHEMATIC SHOWN IS FOR LARGE 3 PHASE GENERATORS OVER 12 500 KVA. REFER TO TABLE 2 FOR REQUIREMENTS ON SPECIFIC GENERATORS. DATE BY SLD NO. 11/22/2001 Page 63 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 00-002 Appendices Appendix H: Protective Settings Commissioning Document PROTECTIVE SETTINGS COMMISSIONING DOCUMENT (Set applicable protection to the most conservative values or as agreed to by the Wires Owner) OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION PARAMETERS Phase Voltage to Trip Primary Trip 0 -N GUIDELINE LIMIT 106% to 120% 1% Increments Fast Trip 0 -N ADJUSTABLE RANGE Duration to Trip TESTED GUIDELINE LIMIT 144% to 120% 1% Increments AS SET A B C Fast Trip 0 -N TESTED AS SET A B C 30 Cycles 100 ms UNDER VOLTAGE PROTECTION PARAMETERS Phase Voltage to Trip Primary Trip 0 -N ADJUSTABLE RANGE GUIDELINE ADJUSTABLE LIMIT RANGE 50% to 90% 1% Increments Duration to Trip TESTED AS SET A B GUIDELINE LIMIT C ADJUSTABLE RANGE TESTED AS SET A B C A TESTED B C 120 Cycles Less than 50% 1% Increments 100 ms NON ISLANDING FUNCTION TEST Loss of Utility Voltage 100 ms Generator Restart Delay after Utility Voltage Failure 5 min Minimum Dead Bus Test Fail to Start Successful (Y or N) OVER FREQUENCY PROTECTION PARAMETERS Frequency to Trip GUIDELINE LIMIT Primary Trip Fast Trip ADJUSTABLE RANGE AS SET Duration to Trip A TESTED B C GUIDELINE LIMIT 60.5 to 61.5 Hz 1% Increments AS SET 3 minutes 61.5 to 61.7 Hz 1% Increments ADJUSTABLE RANGE 30 seconds UNDER FREQUENCY PROTECTION PARAMETERS Frequency to Trip GUIDELINE LIMIT ADJUSTABLE RANGE Duration to Trip TESTED AS SET A B C GUIDELINE LIMIT Primary Trip 59.5 to 58.5 Hz 1% Increments 58.5 to 57.9 Hz 1% Increments 57.9 to 57.4 Hz 1% Increments 57.4 to 56.9 Hz 1% Increments 56.9 to 56.5 Hz 1% Increments 7.2 cycles Less than 56.4 Hz C 45 cycles Fifth Trip B 7.5 seconds Fourth Trip A 30 seconds Third Trip TESTED AS SET 3 minutes Second Trip ADJUSTABLE RANGE 100 ms Fast Trip Page 64 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix H: Protective Settings Commissioning Document (continued) REVERSE AC CURRENT PROTECTION FUNCTION Current to Trip DESIGN LIMIT ADJUSTABLE RANGE AS SET A Duration to Trip TESTED B DESIGN VALUE GUIDELINE LIMIT C ADJUSTABLE RANGE ADJUSTABLE RANGE AS SET A TESTED B C A TESTED B C Primary Trip SYNCHRONIZATION LIMITS FOR SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS GUIDELINE LIMIT Frequency Difference AS SET + 0.2 Hz Voltage Difference ADJUSTABLE RANGE 5% 10 Deg Phase difference WIRES PHASE & GROUND FAULT PROTECTION FUNCTION Maximum Current or Volts to Trip GUIDELINE LIMIT ADJUSTABLE RANGE AS SET A TESTED B Duration to Trip C Phase Current AS SET 200 ms Neutral Current 200 ms TRANSFER TRIP PROTECTION GUIDELINE LIMIT Generator Lockout ADJUSTABLE RANGE AS SET 0.6 seconds 6 seconds Fail Safe Lockout TEST CERTIFICATION AND HISTORICAL DATA TYPE OF TEST PROTECTION SYSTEM RE-TEST ORIGINAL COMMISSIONING TEST DATE OF TEST WIRES OWNER REPRESENTATIVE DG OWNER REPRESENTATIVE TITLE DATE TITLE GENERATOR LOCATION & IDENTIFICATION NUMBER Page 65 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix H: Protective Settings Commissioning Document (continued) Note 1: Refer to Chapter 11, “Connecting Small Generators to Utility Distribution Systems,” by A. B. Sturton. Refer to “Transformer Concepts and Application Course Notes,” by Power Technologies Inc., Schenectady, New York. Refer to “Electrical Transients in Power Systems,” by Allan Greenwood. Refer to “Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book,” by Westinghouse. Note 2: Refer to “Protective Relaying, Principles and Applications,” by J. Lewis Blackburn for details on sub-synchronous resonance. Refer to “Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book,” by Westinghouse. Note 3: Refer to Chapter 8, “Harmonic and Resonant Effects on Application of Capacitors, Distribution Systems, Electric Utility Reference Book,” by Westinghouse. Refer to Chapters 11 & 12, “Connecting Small Generators to Utility Distribution Systems,” by A. B. Sturton. Refer to Chapter 10, “Electric Power Systems: Switching Surges -Interruption of Capacitive Circuits,” by B. M. Weedy. Note 4: Refer to Chapter 4, “Connecting Small Generators to Utility Distribution Systems,” by A. B. Sturton. Page 66 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 Appendices Appendix I: Accuracy Schedules for Metering Equipment Schedule 1: Non-Dispensated Metering Equipment Schedule Of Accuracies For Metering Equipment Approved Under Section 9(1) Of The Electricity and Gas Inspection Act Metering Point Capacity (MVA) Watthour Meter Accuracy Class Varhour Meter Accuracy Class Measurement Transformers Accuracy Class 10 and Above 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% Below 10 0.5% 1.0% 0.3% Notes: 1. This schedule applies to requirements set out in Part 2, Section 5.0 of this Guide. 2. If an alternate measurement is used to determine reactive energy, the accuracy class of the alternate measurement must be equal to or better than the accuracy class set out for reactive energy. Schedule 2: Dispensated Metering Equipment Schedule Of Accuracies For Meters Approved Under Section 9(2) Or 9(3) Of The Electricity And Gas Inspection Act Meter Accuracy Metering Point (MVA) Points of Delivery Points of Supply 10 and Above 1.0 % 1.0 % Below 10 1.0 % 1.0 % Notes: 1. This schedule applies to requirements set out in Part 2, Section 5.0 of this Guide. 2. If an alternate measurement is used to determine reactive energy, the accuracy class of the alternate measurement must be equal to or better than the accuracy class set out for reactive energy. Page 67 of 67 Final Version July 16, 2002 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2010 for the course EPS 090229 taught by Professor Nxhviet during the Winter '10 term at Hanoi University of Technology.

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