The neural stem cell niche

The neural stem cell niche - Cell Tissue Res(2008...

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REVIEW The neural stem cell niche Joanne C. Conover & Ryan Q. Notti Received: 31 May 2007 /Accepted: 29 August 2007 / Published online: 6 October 2007 # Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract The neural stem cell niche defines a zone in which stem cells are retained after embryonic development for the production of new cells of the nervous system. This continual supply of new neurons and glia then provides the postnatal and adult brain with an added capacity for cellular plasticity, albeit one that is restricted to a few specific zones within the brain. Critical to the maintenance of the stem cell niche are microenvironmental cues and cell-cell interactions that act to balance stem cell quiescence with proliferation and to direct neurogenesis versus gliogenesis lineage decisions. Ultimately, based on the location of the niche, stem cells of the adult brain support regeneration in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb through neuron replacement. Here, we provide a summary of the current understanding of the organization and control mechanisms of the neural stem cell niche. Keywords Neural stem cell niche . Neurogenesis . Neural stem cell . Neural progenitors . Aging Establishment of the adult neural stem cell niche In the mammalian brain, stem cell niches are retained in the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The adult SVZ stem cell niche derives from the SVZ of the embryonic ganglionic eminences, which line the lateral ventricle and generate most of the interneuron populations of the neocortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb during embryonic devel- opment (Parnavelas 2000 ; Corbin et al. 2001 ; Marin and Rubenstein 2001 ). Early in postnatal development, prolifer- ative radial glia residing in the ganglionic eminence retract their processes and transform into astrocytes that then persist as part of the neurogenic SVZ through postnatal develop- ment and into adulthood (Merkle et al. 2004 ; Ventura and Goldman 2007 ; Wichterle et al. 2003 ; Wichterle et al. 1999 ; Wichterle et al. 2001 ; see also the articles by P. Malatesta and by A. Alvarez-Buylla, this issue). In contrast to the multiple radial and tangential migration pathways that emanate from the ganglionic eminence and lead to the developing cerebral cortex, dorsal thalamus, and olfactory bulb (for a review, see Rakic 2006 ), new neurons born in the postnatal/adult SVZ are restricted in their migration to the rostral migratory stream that leads to the olfactory bulb. As a result, under normal physiological circumstances, neurogenesis from the adult rodent SVZ supplies only the olfactory bulb with new neurons. In hippocampal development, radial glia detach from the embryonic ventricular wall and move into the SGZ where they transform into elongated stellar cells and generate neurons of the granule cell layer (Eckenhoff and Rakic 1984 ; Kosaka and Hama 1986 ; Rickmann et al. 1987 ; Seri et al.
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