Exam 1 Key - The Exam 1 Key Complete.

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Phil 1110 Exam One Key 2/16/10 J. Collins [1] Define deductive validity and soundness . Say whether or not the following argument is valid or not, and whether it is sound or not, and explain why . (30) 1. All great geniuses are misunderstood. 2. Albert Einstein was misunderstood. _______ 3. Thus, Albert Einstein was a great genius. A deductively valid argument is one in which if the premises were true, then the conclusion would have to be true. A sound argument is a valid argument that does have all true premises. The Einstein argument is neither valid nor sound. It isn’t valid, because if, hypothetically, the premises were true, that would not guarantee that the conclusion was true. Einstein could be a misunderstood non-genius. This argument has exactly the same form as this: All cars have doors; my house has doors; therefore my house is a car. (It’s also the same form as the Garfield example from class. These are all invalid.) Since an argument can be sound only if it is also valid, this argument is unsound. If you pointed out that the first premise is false, that would also suffice to explain why the argument is unsound. (N.B. Arguments cannot be true or false, and statements cannot be valid or sound.) [2] State the Design Argument (premises and conclusion). In this argument, an analogy is made between two things. Explain what a defender of the argument, like Paley, would say is the key similarity between these two things (which provides support for the conclusion). What would a critic of the argument likely say is the key dissimilarity between them (undermining the conclusion)? (24) The version of the Design Argument that we discussed went like this: 1. Watches and other machines are produced by intelligent design. 2. Watches and other machines are like some things in nature. 3. Therefore, some things in nature are produced by intelligent design. How does the supporter of this argument think that machines and things in nature, like eyes or
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course PHIL 1110 taught by Professor Miller during the Spring '08 term at East Carolina University .

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Exam 1 Key - The Exam 1 Key Complete.

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