AP Calculus AB Free Response 1989-1997

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Calculus AB A P® C a l c u l u s B C Free-Response Questions and Solutions 1989 – 1997 Copyright © 2003 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. AP Central is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 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All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com Notes about AP Calculus Free-Response Questions • The solution to each free-response question is as it appeared on the scoring standard from the AP Reading. Other mathematically correct solutions are possible. • Scientific calculators were permitted, but not required, on the AP Calculus Exams in 1983 and 1984. • Scientific (nongraphing) calculators were required on the AP Calculus Exams in 1993 and 1994. • Graphing calculators have been required on the AP Calculus Exams since 1995. From 1995-1999, the calculator could be used on all 6 free-response questions. Since the 2000 Exams, the free-response section has consisted of two parts -- Part A (questions 1-3) requires a graphing calculator and Part B (questions 4-6) does not allow the use of a calculator. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB1 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = x 3 − 7 x + 6 . (a) Find the zeros of f . (b) Write an equation of the line tangent to the graph of f at x = −1. (c) Find the number c that satisfies the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem for f on the closed interval [1, 3] . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB1 Solution (a) f ( x ) = x 3 − 7 x + 6 = ( x − 1) ( x − 2 ) ( x + 3) x = 1, x = 2, x = −3 (b) f ′ ( x ) = 3 x 2 − 7 f ′ ( −1) = −4, f ( −1) = 12 y − 12 = −4 ( x + 1) or 4x + y = 8 or y = −4 x + 8 (c) f (3) − f (1) 12 − 0 = =6 3 −1 2 3c 2 − 7 = f ′ ( c ) = 6 c= 13 3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB2 Let R be the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the graph of y = 6 x + 4 , the line y = 2 x , and the y-axis. (a) Find the area of R . (b) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (c) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB2 Solution (a) Area = ∫ 2 0 6 x + 4 − 2 x dx 12 3/ 2 = ⋅ (6 x + 4 ) − x 2 63 2 0 64 8 20 = − 4 − = 9 9 9 (b) Volume about x-axis 2 V = π ∫ ( 6 x + 4 ) − 4 x 2 dx 0 or 2 V = π ∫ ( 6 x + 4 ) dx − 0 32π 3 (c) Volume about y-axis 2 V = 2π ∫ x 0 ( ) 6 x + 4 − 2 x dx or 4 4 2 2 ⌠ y2 − 4 ⌠ y V = π dy − π dy ⌡0 2 ⌡2 6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB3 A particle moves along the x-axis in such a way that its acceleration at time t for t ≥ 0 is given by a( t) = 4 cos( 2 t) . At time t = 0 , the velocity of the particle is v (0) = 1 and its position is x (0) = 0 . (a) Write an equation for the velocity v (t ) of the particle. (b) Write an equation for the position x (t ) of the particle. (c) For what values of t , 0 ≤ t ≤ π , is the particle at rest? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB3 Solution (a) v (t ) = ∫ 4 cos 2t dt v (t ) = 2sin 2t + C v (0 ) = 1 ⇒ C = 1 v (t ) = 2sin 2t + 1 (b) x (t ) = ∫ 2sin 2t + 1 dt x (t ) = − cos 2t + t + C x (0 ) = 0 ⇒ C = 1 x (t ) = − cos 2t + t + 1 (c) 2 sin 2t + 1 = 0 1 2 7π 11π 2t = , 66 7π 11π t= , 12 12 sin 2t = − Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB4 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = x x2 − 4 . (a) Find the domain of f . (b) Write an equation for each vertical asymptote to the graph of f . (c) Write an equation for each horizontal asymptote to the graph of f . (d) Find f ′( x) . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB4 Solution (a) x < −2 or x > 2 or x > 2 (b) x = 2, x = −2 (c) lim x →∞ lim x x −4 x 2 =1 x2 − 4 y = 1, y = −1 x →−∞ (d) f ′(x) = = = = −1 −1/ 2 1 x2 − 4 − x ( x2 − 4) 2 x 2 x2 − 4 x2 x2 − 4 − x2 − 4 x2 − 4 −4 (x 2 − 4) 3/ 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB5 The figure above shows the graph of f ′ , the derivative of a function f . The domain of f is the set of all real numbers x such that −10 ≤ x ≤ 10 . (a) For what values of x does the graph of f have a horizontal tangent? (b) For what values of x in the interval (−10,10) does f have a relative maximum? Justify your answer. (c) For value of x is the graph of f concave downward? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB5 Solution (a) horizontal tangent ⇔ f ′ ( x ) = 0 x = −7, − 1, 4, 8 (b) Relative maxima at x = −1, 8 because f ′ changes from positive to negative at these points (c) f concave downward ⇔ f ′ decreasing ( −3, 2 ) , (6,10 ) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB6 Oil is being pumped continuously from a certain oil well at a rate proportional to the dy amount of oil left in the well; that is, = ky , where y is the amount of oil left in the dt well at any time t . Initially there were 1, 000, 000 gallons of oil in the well, and 6 years later there were 500, 000 gallons remaining. It will no longer be profitable to pump oil when there are fewer than 50,000 gallons remaining. (a) Write an equation for y , the amount of oil remaining in the well at any time t . (b) At what rate is the amount of oil in the well decreasing when there are 600,000 gallons of oil remaining? (c) In order not to lose money, at what time t should oil no longer be pumped from the well? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 AB6 Solution dy = ky (a) dt y = Ce kt dy y = k dt ln y = kt + C1 kt + C1 y = e or t = 0 ⇒ C = 106 , C1 = ln 106 ∴ y = 106 e kt 1 = e6 k 2 ln 2 ∴k = − 6 t =6⇒ −t y = 106 e 6 (b) ln 2 −t = 106 ⋅ 2 6 dy ln 2 = ky = − ⋅ 6 ⋅ 10 5 dt 6 = −105 ln 2 Decreasing at 105 ln 2 gal/year (c) 5 ⋅104 = 106 e kt ∴ kt = − ln 20 − ln 20 ∴t = − ln 2 6 ln 20 =6 = 6 log 2 20 ln 2 ln 20 6 years after starting ln 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC1 Let f be a function such that f ′′( x ) = 6 x + 8 . (a) Find f ( x ) if the graph of f is tangent to the line 3 x − y = 2 at the point (0, −2) . (b) Find the average value of f ( x ) on the closed interval [−1,1] . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC1 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 8 x + C f ′ (0 ) = 3 C =3 f ( x ) = x3 + 4 x 2 + 3x + d d = −2 f ( x ) = x3 + 4 x 2 + 3x − 2 (b) 1 1 3 2 ∫ −1 ( x + 4 x + 3x − 2 ) dx 1 − ( −1) = = 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 4 x + 3 x + 2 x − 2x 2 1 −1 1 1 4 3 1 4 3 4 + 3 + 2 − 2 − 4 − 3 + 2 + 2 2 =− 2 3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC2 Let R be the region enclosed by the graph of y = x2 , the line x = 1, and the x-axis. x2 +1 (a) Find the area of R . (b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated about the y-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC2 Solution 1 x2 (a) Area = ⌠ 2 dx ⌡0 x + 1 1 1 = ⌠ 1− 2 dx ⌡0 x +1 1 = x − arctan x 0 = 1− π 4 1 ⌠ x2 (b) Volume = 2π x 2 dx ⌡0 x + 1 1 x dx = 2π ⌠ x − 2 x +1 ⌡0 1 x2 1 = 2π − ln x 2 + 1 2 2 0 = π (1 − ln 2 ) or 1/ 2 ⌠ y Volume = π 1 − dy ⌡0 1− y = π ( 2 y + ln y − 1 ) 1/ 2 0 = π (1 − ln 2 ) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC3 Consider the function f defined by f ( x ) = e cos x with domain [0, 2π ] . x (a) Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of f ( x ). (b) Find the intervals on which f is increasing. (c) Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection of the graph of f . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC3 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = −e x sin x + e x cos x = e x [cos x − sin x ] f ′ ( x ) = 0 when sin x = cos x, x = , 44 f (x) x 0 1 π 2 π /4 e 2 2 5π / 4 e − 2 e 2π 4 5π 4 2π Max: e 2π ; Min: − (b) π 5π f ′( x) 2 5π / 4 e 2 − + 0 π 4 + 5π 4 2π π 5π Increasing on 0, , , 2π 4 4 (c) f ′′ ( x ) = e x [− sin x − cos x ] + e x [cos x − sin x ] = −2e x sin x f ′′ ( x ) = 0 when x = 0, π , 2π Point of inflection at x = π Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC4 Consider the curve given by the parametric equations x = 2t 3 − 3t 2 and y = t 3 − 12t (a) In terms of t , find dy . dx (b) Write an equation for the line tangent to the curve at the point where t = − 1. (c) Find the x- and y-coordinates for each critical point on the curve and identify each point as having a vertical or horizontal tangent. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC4 Solution (a) dy = 3t 2 − 12 dt dx = 6t 2 − 6t dt (t + 2 ) (t − 2 ) dy 3t 2 − 12 t2 − 4 =2 =2 = 2t (t − 1) dx 6t − 6t 2t − 2t (b) x = −5, y = 11 dy 3 =− dx 4 3 y − 11 = − ( x + 5 ) 4 or 3 29 y = − x+ 4 4 4 y + 3 x = 29 (c) t −2 0 1 2 ( x, y ) type ( −28,16 ) (0, 0 ) ( −1, − 11) ( 4, −16 ) horizontal vertical vertical horizontal Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC5 At any time t ≥ 0 , the velocity of a particle traveling along the x-axis is given by the dx differential equation − 10x = 60e 4 t . dt (a) Find the general solution x (t ) for the position of the particle. (b) If the position of the particle at time t = 0 is x = − 8 , find the particular solution x (t ) for the position of the particle. (c) Use the particular solution from part (b) to find the time at which the particle is at rest. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC5 Solution (a) Integrating Factor: e ∫ − 10 dt = e −10t d ( xe−10t ) = 60e4t e−10t dt xe −10t = −10e −6t + C x (t ) = −10e 4t + Ce10t or xh (t ) = Ce10t x p = Ae 4 t 4 Ae 4t − 10 Ae 4t = 60e 4t A = −10 x (t ) = Ce10t − 10e 4t (b) −8 = C − 10; C = 2 x (t ) = 2e10t − 10e 4t (c) dx = 20e10t − 40e 4t dt 20e10t − 40e 4t = 0 1 t = ln 2 6 or dx − 10 ( −10e 4t + 2e10t ) = 60e 4t dt 0 + 100e 4t − 20e10t = 60e 4t 1 t = ln 2 6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC6 Let f be a function that is everywhere differentiable and that has the following properties. (i) f ( x + h ) = f ( x ) + f (h ) for all real numbers h and x . f (− x ) + f (− h ) (ii) f ( x ) > 0 for all real numbers x . (iii) f ′(0) = −1 . (a) Find the value of f (0) . (b) Show that f (− x ) = 1 for all real numbers x . f ( x) (c) Using part (b), show that f ( x + h ) = f ( x ) f (h) for all real numbers h and x . (d) Use the definition of the derivative to find f ′( x) in terms of f ( x) . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1989 BC6 Solution (a) Let x = h = 0 f (0 ) = f (0 + 0 ) = f (0 ) + f (0 ) f (0 ) + f (0 ) =1 (b) Let h = 0 f ( x + 0) = f ( x ) = f ( x ) + f (0 ) f ( − x ) + f ( −0 ) Use f (0 ) = 1 and solve for f ( x ) = 1 f (− x ) or Note that f (− x + 0) = (c) f ( x + h ) = = f ( − x ) + f ( 0) is the reciprocal of f(x). f ( x ) + f ( 0) f ( x ) + f (h) 1 1 + f ( x ) f (h ) f ( x ) + f (h ) f (h ) + f ( x ) f ( x ) f (h) = f ( x ) f (h) f ( x + h) − f ( x) h →0 h f ( x ) f (h) − f ( x ) = lim h →0 h f (h) −1 = f ( x ) lim h→0 h = f ( x ) f ′ (0 ) = − f ( x ) (d) f ′ ( x ) = lim Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1990 AB1 A particle, initially at rest, moves along the x-axis so that its acceleration at any time 2 t ≥ 0 is given by a( t) = 12 t − 4. The position of the particle when t = 1 is x (1) = 3 . (a) Find the values of t for which the particle is at rest. (b) Write an expression for the position x (t ) of the particle at any time t ≥ 0 . (c) Find the total distance traveled by the particle from t = 0 to t = 2 . 1990 AB1 Solution (a) v (t ) = 4t 3 − 4t v (t ) = 4t 3 − 4t = 0 = 4t (t 2 − 1) = 0 Therefore t = 0, t = 1 (b) x (t ) = t 4 − 2t 2 + C 3 = x (1) = 14 − 2 ⋅1 + C 3 = C −1 4=C x (t ) = t 4 − 2t 2 + 4 (c) x(0) = 4 x(1) = 3 x(2) = 12 Distance = 1 + 9 = 10 1990 AB2 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = ln x . x −1 (a) What is the domain of f ? (b) Find the value of the derivative of f at x = − 1. (c) Write an expression for f −1 ( x), where f −1 denotes the inverse function of f . 1990 AB2 Solution (a) x >0 x −1 x > 0 and x − 1 > 0 ⇒ x > 1 x < 0 and x − 1 < 0 ⇒ x < 0 x < 0 or x > 1 (b) f ′ ( x ) = = x − 1 ( x − 1) − x ⋅ 2 x ( x − 1) −1 x ( x − 1) or ln x − ln x − 1 ⇒ f ′ ( x ) = f ′ ( −1) = − 1 2 x (c) y = ln x −1 x ey = x −1 y x ( e − 1) = e y x= f −1 ey e y −1 ex ( x) = x e −1 1 1 − x x −1 1990 AB3 x 2 Let R be the region enclosed by the graphs of y = e , y = ( x − 1) , and the line x = 1. (a) Find the area of R . (b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (c) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. 1990 AB3 Solution 1 (a) A = ∫ e x − ( x − 1) dx 2 0 1 = ∫ e x − x 2 + 2 x − 1 dx 0 1 31 ( x − 1) 0 0 3 1 4 = ( e − 1) − = e − 3 3 1 = ex − 1 (b) V = π ∫ e 2 x − ( x − 1) dx 4 0 1 e2 x = π −π 2 0 5 1 5 ( x − 1) 1 0 e 2 1 1 e2 7 = π − − = π − 2 10 2 2 5 or ( 1 ) e V = 2π ⌠ y 1 − 1 − y dy + 2π ∫ y (1 − ln y ) dy 1 ⌡0 1 2 = 2π ⋅ y 5 / 2 + 2π 5 0 4 = π + 2π 5 e 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 y − 2 y ln y − 4 y 1 e2 7 1 2 3 e − =π − 4 4 2 10 1 2 (c) V = 2π ∫ x e x − ( x − 1) dx 0 or 1 ( V = π ⌠ 1− 1− y ⌡0 ) dy + π ∫ 1 − (ln y ) dy 2 e 1 2 1990 AB4 The radius r of a sphere is increasing at a constant rate of 0.04 centimeters per second. 43 (Note: The volume of a sphere with radius r is V = π r .) 3 (a) At the time when the radius of the sphere is 10 centimeters, what is the rate of increase of its volume? (b) At the time when the volume of the sphere is 36π cubic centimeters, what is the rate of increase of the area of a cross section through the center of the sphere? (c) At the time when the volume and the radius of the sphere are increasing at the same numerical rate, what is the radius? 1990 AB4 Solution (a) dV 4 dr = ⋅ 3π r 2 dt 3 dt Therefore when r = 10, dr = 0.04 dt dV = 4π 102 ( 0.04 ) = 16π cm3 /sec dt (b) V = 36π ⇒ 36 = 43 r ⇒ r 3 = 27 ⇒ r = 3 3 A = π r2 dA dr = 2π r dt dt Therefore when V = 36π , dr = 0.04 dt dA 6π = 2π ⋅ 3 ( 0.04 ) = = 0.24π cm 2 /sec dt 25 (c) dV dr = dt dt dr dr 4π r 2 = ⇒ 4π r 2 = 1 dt dt 1 1 Therefore r 2 = cm ⇒r= 4π 2π 1990 AB5 2 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = sin x − sin x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3π . 2 (a) Find the x-intercepts of the graph of f . (b) Find the intervals on which f is increasing. (c) Find the absolute maximum value and the absolute minimum value of f . Justify your answer. 1990 AB5 Solution (a) sin 2 x − sin x = 0 Therefore sin x = 0 or sin x = 1 x = 0, π 2 ,π (b) f ′ ( x ) = 2sin x cos x − cos x = cos x ( 2 sin x − 1) f ′ ( x ) = 0 when x = − f′ + π 6 (c) ≤x≤ π 6 2 π 2 π f (x) 6 π 2 5π 6 3π 2 0 − 1 4 0 − + 5π 6 5π 3π ≤x≤ 6 2 and x 0 ,, , 626 2 − π 0 π π 5π 3π 1 4 2 Maximum value: 2 Minimum value: -1/4 3π 2 1990 AB6 Let f be the function that is given by f ( x ) = properties. (i) (ii) (iii) ax + b and that has the following x2 − c The graph of f is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. lim f ( x ) = +∞ x→ 2 + f ′(1) = −2 (a) Determine the values of a , b , and c . (b) Write an equation for each vertical and each horizontal asymptote of the graph of f. (c) Sketch the graph of f in the xy-plane provided below. y 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 x 1990 AB6 Solution (a) Graph symmetric to y-axis ⇒ f is even f ( − x ) = f ( x ) therefore a = 0 lim f ( x ) = +∞ therefore c = 4 x → 2+ f (x) = f ′( x) = b x −4 −2bx 2 (x 2 − 4) −2 = f ′ (1) = 2 −2b therefore b = 9 9 9 x −4 Vertical: x = 2, x = −2 (b) f ( x ) = 2 Horizontal: y = 0 (c) y 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x 1990 BC1 A particle starts at time t = 0 and moves along the x-axis so that its position at any time 3 t ≥ 0 is given by x (t ) = (t − 1) (2t − 3). (a) Find the velocity of the particle at any time t ≥ 0 . (b) For what values of t is the velocity of the particle less than zero? (c) Find the value of t when the particle is moving and the acceleration is zero. 1990 BC1 Solution (a) v (t ) = x′ (t ) = 3 (t − 1) ( 2t − 3) + 2 (t − 1) 2 3 = (t − 1) (8t − 11) 2 (b) v (t ) < 0 when (t − 1) (8t − 11) < 0 2 Therefore 8t − 11 < 0 and t ≠ 1 or t < 11 and t ≠ 1 8 Since t ≥ 0, answer is 0 ≤ t < 11 , except t = 1 8 (c) a (t ) = v′ (t ) = 2 (t − 1) (8t − 11) + 8 (t − 1) 2 = 6 (t − 1) ( 4t − 5 ) a (t ) = 0 when t = 1, t = 5 4 but particle not moving at t = 1 so t = 5 4 1990 BC2 x Let R be the region in the xy-plane between the graphs of y = e and y = e x = 0 to x = 2 . −x from (a) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. 1990 BC2 Solution (a) V = π ∫ ( e 2 x − e −2 x ) dx 2 0 2 1 1 = π e 2 x + e −2 x 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 = π e 4 + e −4 − + 2 2 2 2 = π e 4 + e −4 − 2 2 2 (b) V = 2π ∫ x e x − e − x dx 0 2 = 2π x ( e x + e − x ) − ∫ e x + e − x dx 0 = 2π x ( e x + e − x ) − ( e x − e − x ) 0 2 = 2π 2 ( e 2 + e −2 ) − ( e 2 − e −2 ) − 0 − (1 − 1) = 2π e 2 + 3e −2 1990 BC3 Let f ( x ) = 12 − x 2 for x ≥ 0 and f ( x ) ≥ 0. (a) The line tangent to the graph of f at the point (k , f (k )) intercepts the x-axis at x = 4 . What is the value of k ? (b) An isosceles triangle whose base is the interval from (0, 0) to (c, 0) has its vertex on the graph of f . For what value of c does the triangle have maximum area? Justify your answer. 1990 BC3 Solution (a) f ( x ) = 12 − x 2 ; f ′ ( x ) = −2 x slope of tangent line at ( k , f ( k ) ) = −2 k line through ( 4, 0 ) & ( k , f ( k )) has slope f ( k ) − 0 12 − k 2 = k −4 k −4 12 − k 2 so − 2k = ⇒ k 2 − 8k + 12 = 0 k −4 k = 2 or k = 6 but f ( 6 ) = −24 so 6 is not in the domain. k =2 (b) 1 A = c⋅ 2 c2 c 1 f = c 12 − 4 2 2 c3 = 6c − on 0, 4 3 8 dA 3c 2 3c 2 ; 6− = 6− = 0 when c = 4. dc 8 8 Candidate test First derivative c A 0 0 4 16 Max − + A′ 0 4 43 43 0 second derivative d2A = −3 < 0 so c = 4 gives a relative max. dc 2 c = 4 c = 4 is the only critical value in the domain interval, therefore maximum 1990 BC4 Let R be the region inside the graph of the polar curve r = 2 and outside the graph of the polar curve r = 2(1 − sin θ ) . (a) Sketch the two polar curves in the xy-plane provided below and shade the region R . y 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 (b) Find the area of R . 1 2 3 4 5 x 1990 BC4 Solution y y (a) 5 5 R −5 O −5 5 5 −5 −5 (b) A= 2 1⌠π 2 2 − ( 2 (1 − sin θ )) dθ 2 ⌡0 = 2∫ π 0 (2 sin θ − sin θ ) dθ 2 π π 0 0 = 4 ∫ sin θ dθ − ∫ (1 − cos 2θ ) dθ = −4 cos θ π 0 1 − θ − sin 2θ 2 = −4 ( −1) + 4 (1) − [π − 0] = 8 −π π 0 x x 1990 BC5 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = 1 . x −1 (a) Write the first four terms and the general term of the Taylor series expansion of f ( x ) about x = 2 . (b) Use the result from part (a) to find the first four terms and the general term of the series expansion about x = 2 for ln x − 1 . (c) Use the series in part (b) to compute a number that differs from ln 0.05. Justify your answer. 3 by less than 2 1990 BC5 Solution (a) Taylor approach Geometric Approach f (2) = 1 f ′ ( 2 ) = − ( 2 − 1) = −1 1 1 = x −1 1 + ( x − 2) −2 f ′′ ( 2 ) = 2 ( 2 − 1) = 2; −3 f ′′′ ( 2 ) = −6 ( 2 − 1) −4 Therefore f ′′ ( 2 ) = 1 − u + u 2 − u3 + =1 2! f ′′′ ( 2 ) = −6; = −1 3! + ( −1) u n + where u = x − 2 1 2 3 = 1 − ( x − 2) + ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) + x −1 + ( −1) ( x − 2 ) + n n (b) Antidifferentiates series in (a): 1 1 1 2 3 4 ln x − 1 = C + x − ( x − 2 ) + ( x − 2 ) − ( x − 2 ) + 2 3 4 0 = ln 2 − 1 ⇒ C = −2 Note: If C ≠ 0 , “first 4 terms” need not include − 2 ( −1) ( x − 2 ) + n +1 n n +1 + 1 4 ( x − 2) 4 3 3 5 1 11 11 ln = ln − 1 = − + − (c) 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 111 =−+ − 2 8 24 1 111 < , − = 0.375 is sufficient. since 24 20 2 8 Justification: Since series is alternating, with terms convergent to 0 and decreasing in absolute value, the truncation error is less than the first omitted term. n +1 1 1 1 5 Rn = , where 2 < C < n +1 Alternate Justification: 2 (C − 1) n + 1 2 11 n + 1 2n +1 1 when n ≥ 2 < 20 < n 1990 BC6 Let f and g be continuous functions with the following properties. (i) g ( x) = A − f ( x) where A is a constant (ii) (iii) (a) Find ∫ ∫ ∫ 3 1 2 1 3 2 f ( x ) dx = ∫ 3 2 g ( x ) dx f ( x) dx = −3 A f ( x) dx in terms of A . (b) Find the average value of g( x ) in terms of A , over the interval [1, 3] . (c) Find the value of k if ∫ 1 0 f ( x + 1) dx = k A . 1990 BC6 Solution (a) 3 2 3 ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 = ∫ g ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx =∫ 3 2 ( A − f ( x ) ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx 3 2 3 3 2 2 = A − ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx =A 13 13 ∫1 g ( x ) dx = 2 ∫1 ( A − f ( x )) dx 2 3 1 = 2 A − ∫ f ( x ) dx 1 2 (b) Average value = = 1 1 1 [ 2 A − A] = A 2 2 2 (c) kA = ∫ f ( x + 1) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx 0 1 3 = ∫ g ( x ) dx 2 = A + 3A = 4 A Therefore k = 4 1990 BC5 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = 1 . x −1 (a) Write the first four terms and the general term of the Taylor series expansion of f ( x ) about x = 2 . (b) Use the result from part (a) to find the first four terms and the general term of the series expansion about x = 2 for ln x − 1 . (c) Use the series in part (b) to compute a number that differs from ln 0.05. Justify your answer. 3 by less than 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1990 BC5 Solution (a) Taylor approach Geometric Approach f (2) = 1 f ′ ( 2 ) = − ( 2 − 1) = −1 1 1 = x −1 1 + ( x − 2) −2 f ′′ ( 2 ) = 2 ( 2 − 1) = 2; −3 f ′′′ ( 2 ) = −6 ( 2 − 1) −4 Therefore f ′′ ( 2 ) = 1 − u + u 2 − u3 + =1 2! f ′′′ ( 2 ) = −6; = −1 3! + ( −1) u n + where u = x − 2 1 2 3 = 1 − ( x − 2) + ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) + x −1 + ( −1) ( x − 2 ) + n n (b) Antidifferentiates series in (a): 1 1 1 2 3 4 ln x − 1 = C + x − ( x − 2 ) + ( x − 2 ) − ( x − 2 ) + 2 3 4 0 = ln 2 − 1 ⇒ C = −2 Note: If C ≠ 0 , “first 4 terms” need not include − 2 ( −1) ( x − 2 ) + n +1 n n +1 + 1 4 ( x − 2) 4 3 3 5 1 11 11 ln = ln − 1 = − + − (c) 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 111 =−+ − 2 8 24 1 111 < , − = 0.375 is sufficient. since 24 20 2 8 Justification: Since series is alternating, with terms convergent to 0 and decreasing in absolute value, the truncation error is less than the first omitted term. n +1 1 1 1 5 Rn = , where 2 < C < n +1 Alternate Justification: 2 (C − 1) n + 1 2 11 n + 1 2n +1 1 when n ≥ 2 < 20 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. < Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com n 1990 BC6 Let f and g be continuous functions with the following properties. (i) (ii) ∫ (iii) (a) Find g ( x) = A − f ( x) where A is a constant ∫ ∫ 3 1 2 1 3 2 f ( x ) dx = ∫ 3 2 g ( x ) dx f ( x) dx = −3 A f ( x) dx in terms of A . (b) Find the average value of g( x ) in terms of A , over the interval [1, 3] . (c) Find the value of k if ∫ 1 0 f ( x + 1) dx = k A . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1990 BC6 Solution (a) 3 2 3 ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 = ∫ g ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx =∫ 3 2 ( A − f ( x ) ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx 3 2 3 3 2 2 = A − ∫ f ( x ) dx + ∫ f ( x ) dx =A 13 13 ∫1 g ( x ) dx = 2 ∫1 ( A − f ( x )) dx 2 3 1 = 2 A − ∫ f ( x ) dx 1 2 (b) Average value = = 1 1 1 [ 2 A − A] = A 2 2 2 (c) kA = ∫ f ( x + 1) dx = ∫ f ( x ) dx 0 1 3 = ∫ g ( x ) dx 2 = A + 3A = 4 A Therefore k = 4 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB1 Let f be the function that is defined for all real numbers x and that has the following properties. (i) f ′′( x ) = 24 x − 18 (ii) f ′(1) = −6 (iii) f (2) = 0 (a) Find each x such that the line tangent to the graph of f at ( x, f ( x)) is horizontal. (b) Write an expression for f ( x ) . (c) Find the average value of f on the interval 1 ≤ x ≤ 3. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB1 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = 12 x 2 − 18 x + C f ′ (1) = −6 = 12 − 18 + C Therefore C = 0 f ′ ( x ) = 6 x ( 2 x − 3) = 0 x = 0, 3 2 (b) f ( x ) = 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + C f ( 2 ) = 0 = 32 − 36 + C Therefore C = 4 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 9 x 2 + 4 (c) 133 2 ∫1 4 x − 9 x + 4 dx 3 −1 3 1 = x 4 − 3x3 + 4 x 2 1 1 (81 − 81 + 12 ) − (1 − 3 + 4 ) 2 =5 = Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB2 Let R be the region between the graphs of y = 1 + sin(πx ) and y = x from x = 0 to x = 1. 2 (a) Find the area of R . (b) Set up, but do not integrate an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (c) Set up, but do not integrate an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB2 Solution 1 (a) A = ∫ 1 + sin (π x ) − x 2 dx 0 1 1 1 = x − cos (π x ) − x 3 π 3 0 1 1 1 = 1 − ( −1) − − 0 − − 0 3 π π 22 =+ 3π (b) V = π ∫ (1 + sin (π x )) − x 4 dx 1 2 0 or 1 2π ∫ y 2 3/ 2 0 ⌠2 dy + 2π y 1 − arcsin ( y − 1) dy ⌡1 π (c) V = 2π ∫ x (1 + sin (π x ) − x 2 ) dx 1 0 or 2 ⌠ π ∫ y dy + π 0 ⌡1 1 2 2 1 1 1 − arcsin ( y − 1) − arcsin ( y − 1) dy π π Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB3 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = (1 + tan x ) 3 2 for − π 4 < x< π 2 . (a) Write an equation for the line tangent to the graph of f at the point where x = 0 . (b) Using the equation found in part (a), approximate f (0.02). (c) Let f denote the inverse function of f . Write an expression that gives f ( x ) −1 for all x in the domain of f . −1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com −1 1991 AB3 Solution (a) f ( 0 ) = 1 1/ 2 3 (1 + tan ( x )) (sec2 ( x )) 2 3 f ′ (0 ) = 2 3 3 or y −1 = x y = x +1 2 2 f ′( x) = (b) f ( 0.02 ) ≈ 3 (0.02 ) + 1 2 (c) x = (1 + tan y ) 3/ 2 x 2 / 3 = 1 + tan y tan y = x 2 / 3 − 1 y = arctan ( x 2 / 3 − 1) or f −1 ( x ) = arctan ( x 2 / 3 − 1) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB4 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = (a) Find all the zeros of f . (b) Find f ′(1). (c) Find f ′(−1). (d) x −2 . x−2 Find the range of f . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB4 Solution (a) f ( x ) = 0 ⇔ x = 2, x ≠ 2 x = −2 (b) For x ≥ 0, x ≠ 2 x−2 =1 x−2 Therefore f ′ (1) = 0 f (x) = −x − 2 x−2 ( x − 2 ) ( −1) − ( − x − 2 ) (1) (c) For x < 0, f ( x ) = f ′( x) = ( x − 2) Therefore f ′ ( −1) = 2 = 4 ( x − 2) 2 4 9 (d) −1 < y ≤ 1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB5 Let f be a function that is even and continuous on the closed interval [− 3, 3] . The function f and its derivatives have the properties indicated in the table below. x 0 0 < x <1 1 f ( x) 1 Positive 0 f ′( x ) Undefined Negative 0 f ′′( x ) Undefined Positive 0 1< x <2 2 2<x<3 Negative −1 Negative Negative Undefined Positive Negative Undefined Negative (a) Find the x-coordinate of each point at which f attains an absolute maximum value or an absolute minimum value. For each x-coordinate you give, state whether f attains an absolute maximum or an absolute minimum. (b) Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection on the graph of f . Justify your answer. (c) In the xy-plane provided below, sketch the graph of a function with all the given characteristics of f . y 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 −1 −2 −3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com x 1991 AB5 Solution (a) Absolute maximum at x = 0 Absolute minimum at x = ±2 (b) Points of inflection at x = ±1 because the sign of f ′′ ( x ) changes at x = 1 and f is even (c) y 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 −1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 3 x 1991 AB6 A tight rope is stretched 30 feet above the ground between the Jay and the Tee buildings, which are 50 feet apart. A tightrope walker, walking at a constant rate of 2 feet per second from point A to point B , is illuminated by a spotlight 70 feet above point A , as shown in the diagram. (a) How fast is the shadow of the tightrope walker’s feet moving along the ground when she is midway between the buildings? (Indicate units of measure.) (b) How far from point A is the tightrope walker when the shadow of her feet reaches the base of the Tee Building? (Indicate units of measure.) (c) How fast is the shadow of the tightrope walker’s feet moving up the wall of the Tee Building when she is 10 feet from point B ? (Indicate units of measure.) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 AB6 Solution (a) y x = 100 70 dy dx dy / dt dx / dt 70 = 100 or = 100 70 dt dt dy 70 = 100 ( 2 ) dt dy 10 = (2) dt 7 20 ft /sec 7 70 x 30 y (b) x 50 = 70 100 x = 35 ft. (c) 50 b 70 = ax 70 b = 50 − x x bx = 3500 − 70 x 70 a 30 b x c y dx db dx +x = −70 dt dt dt db 35 ( 2 ) + ( 40 ) = −70 ( 2 ) dt 2 35 db =− 8 dt 35 ft / sec 8 b g Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC1 A particle moves on the x-axis so that its velocity at any time t ≥ 0 is given by 2 v (t ) = 12t − 36 t + 15. At t = 1, the particle is at the origin. (a) Find the position x (t ) of the particle at any time t ≥ 0 . (b) Find all values of t for which the particle is at rest. (c) Find the maximum velocity of the particle for 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. (d) Find the total distance traveled by the particle from t = 0 to t = 2. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC1 Solution (a) x (t ) = 4t 3 − 18t 2 + 15t + C 0 = x (1) = 4 − 18 + 15 + C Therefore C = −1 x (t ) = 4t 3 − 18t 2 + 15t − 1 (b) 0 = v (t ) = 12t 2 − 36t + 15 3 ( 2t − 1) ( 2t − 5 ) = 0 15 t= , 22 (c) dv = 24t − 36 dt 3 dv = 0 when t = 2 dt v ( 0 ) = 15 3 v = −12 2 v ( 2 ) = −9 Maximum velocity is 15 (d) Total distance = ∫ 1/ 2 0 2 v ( t ) dt − ∫ v ( t ) dt 1/ 2 1 1 = x − x (0 ) − x ( 2 ) − x 2 2 5 5 = − ( −1) − −11 − = 17 2 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC2 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = xe 1− x for all real numbers x . (a) Find each interval on which f is increasing. (b) Find the range of f . (c) Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection of the graph of f . (d) Using the results found in parts (a), (b), and (c), sketch the graph of f in the xyplane provided below. (Indicate all intercepts.) y 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 −1 −2 −3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com x 1991 BC2 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = xe1− x ( −1) + e1− x = (1 − x ) e1− x f increases on ( −∞,1] (b) f (1) = 1; lim f ( x ) = −∞ x→ −∞ Range: ( −∞,1] (c) f ′′ ( x ) = e1− x ( −1) + (1 − x ) e1− x ( −1) = ( x − 2 ) e1− x Point of inflection at x = 2. (d) y 1 −1 1 2 3 x −1 −2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC3 Let R be the shaded region in the first quadrant enclosed by the y-axis and the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x , as shown in the figure above. (a) Find the area of R . (b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (c) Find the volume of the solid whose base is R and whose cross sections cut by planes perpendicular to the x-axis are squares. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC3 Solution (a) Area = ∫ π /4 0 cos x − sin x dx π /4 = (sin x + cos x ) 0 2 2 = + − ( 0 + 1) 2 2 = 2 −1 (b) V = π ∫ =π∫ = = 2 π 2 =∫ 0 π /4 0 cos 2 x − sin 2 x dx cos 2 x dx π /4 π (c) V = ∫ π /4 sin 2 x 0 (1 − 0 ) = π /4 0 π /4 0 π 2 (cos x − sin x ) 2 dx 1 − 2 sin x cos x dx = ( x − sin 2 x ) π /4 0 π 1 − − (0 − 0 ) 42 π1 =− 42 = Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC4 Let F ( x ) = 2x 1 2 t + t dt . (a) Find F ′ ( x ) . (b) Find the domain of F . (c) Find lim F ( x ) . x→ (d) 1 2 Find the length of the curve y = F ( x ) for 1 ≤ x ≤ 2 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC4 Solution (a) F ′ ( x ) = 2 4 x 2 + 2 x (b) t 2 + t ≥ 0; therefore (t ≥ 0 ) or (t ≤ −1) Since 1 ≥ 0, want 2 x ≥ 0 Therefore x ≥ 0 1 (c) lim F ( x ) = F = 0 x→ 1 2 2 2 (d) L = ⌠ 1 + ( F ′ ( x )) dx ⌡1 =∫ 2 1 2 1 + 16 x 2 + 8 x dx 2 = ∫ 4 x + 1 dx 1 2 = 2 x2 + x = 7 1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC5 Let f be the function given by f ( t) = G( x ) = x 0 4 and G be the function given by 1 + t2 f ( t) dt . (a) Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the power series expansion of f ( t) about t = 0 . (b) Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the power series expansion of G( x ) about x = 0 . (c) Find the interval of convergence of the power series in part (b). (Your solution must include an analysis that justifies your answer.) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC5 Solution (a) f ( t ) = 4 , geometric with a = 4, r = −t 2 2 1+ t f (t ) = 4 − 4t 2 + 4t 4 − 4t 6 + + ( −1) 4t 2 n + n x x 4 (b) G ( x ) = ⌠ dt = ∫ ( 4 − 4t 2 + 4t 4 − 4t 6 + 2 0 ⌡0 1+ t 4 4 4 = 4t − t 3 + t 5 − t 7 + 3 5 7 4 4 4 = 4 x − x3 + x5 − x7 + 3 5 7 ) dt ( −1) + n 4t 2 n +1 + 2n + 1 ( −1) n + 4 x 2 n +1 2n + 1 x 0 + (c) By Ratio Test, ( −1) n +1 4 x 2 n +3 2n + 1 2n + 1 2 ⋅ = x n 2n + 3 ( −1) 4 x 2 n +1 2n + 3 2n + 1 2 x = x 2 ; x 2 < 1 for − 1 < x < 1 n →∞ 2n + 3 444 Check endpoints: G (1) = 4 − + − + Converges by Alternating Series Test 357 44 G ( −1) = −4 + − + Converges by Alternating Series Test 35 Converges for − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 lim Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC6 dy = 2y (1 − y ) , where y is the dt proportion of the population that has heard the rumor at time t . A certain rumor spreads through a community at the rate (a) What proportion of the population has heard the rumor when it is spreading the fastest? (b) If at time t = 0 ten percent of the people have heard the rumor, find y as a function of t . (c) At what time t is the rumor spreading the fastest? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1991 BC6 Solution (a) 2 y (1 − y ) = 2 y − 2 y 2 is largest when 2 − 4 y = 0 so proportion is y = (b) 1 2 1 dy = 2 dt y (1 − y ) 1 ⌠ dy = ∫ 2 dt ⌡ y (1 − y ) 1 ⌠1 dy = ∫ 2 dt + ⌡ y 1− y ln y − ln (1 − y ) = 2t + C y = 2t + C 1− y y = ke 2t 1− y ln y ( 0 ) = 0 .1 ⇒ k = 1 9 e2t y= 9 + e 2t 1 1 (c) 2 = e 2t 19 1− 2 1 1 = e 2t 9 1 t = ln 9 = ln 3 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB1 5 3 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = 3x − 5 x + 2 . (a) On what intervals is f increasing? (b) On what intervals is the graph of f concave upward? (c) Write the equation of each horizontal tangent line to the graph of f . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB1 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = 15 x 4 − 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) Sign of f ′ − + + − −1 1 0 Answer: f is increasing on the intervals ( −∞, − 1] and [1, ∞ ) (b) f ′′ ( x ) = 60 x 3 − 30 x = 30 x ( 2 x 2 − 1) sign of f ′′ + − − 1 2 + − 0 1 2 1 1 , 0 and on ,∞ Answer: f is concave upward on − 2 2 (c) f ′ ( x ) = 0 when x = −1, 0, 1 x = −1 ⇒ f ( x ) = 4; y = 4 f ( 0 ) = 2; y = 2 f (1) = 0; y = 0 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB2 A particle moves along the x-axis so that its velocity at time t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 , is given by v (t ) = 3(t − 1)(t − 3) . At time t = 2 , the position of the particle is x (2) = 0 . (a) Find the minimum acceleration of the particle. (b) Find the total distance traveled by the particle. (c) Find the average velocity of the particle over the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB2 Solution (a) v (t ) = 3t 2 − 12t + 9 a (t ) = 6t − 12 a is increasing, so a is minimum at t = 0 a ( 0 ) = −12 is minimum value of a . v (t ) ( b ) M e t h o d 1: + + − 3 1 0 5 d = ∫ (3t 2 − 12t + 9 ) dt − ∫ (3t 2 − 12t + 9 ) dt + ∫ (3t 2 − 12t + 9 ) dt 1 3 0 5 1 3 1 3 5 = t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t − t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t + t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t 0 1 3 = 4 − ( −4 ) + 20 = 28 or Method 2: x (t ) = t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t − 2 or x (t ) = t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t + C x(0) = −2 x(1) = 2 x(3) = −2 x(5) = 18 Total distance = 4 + 4 + 20 = 28 (c) Method 1: ∫ (3t 5 0 2 − 12t + 9 ) dt 5−0 5 1 1 = t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t = ( 20 ) = 4 5 5 0 or Method 2: x (5 ) − x ( 0 ) 18 − ( −2 ) = =4 5−0 5 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB3 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = ln x . 1 + x2 (a) Find the domain of f . (b) Determine whether f is an even function, an odd function, or neither. Justify your conclusion. (c) At what values of x does f have a relative maximum or a relative minimum? For each such x , use the first derivative test to determine whether f ( x ) is a relative maximum or a relative minimum. (d) Find the range of f . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB3 Solution (a) x ≠ 0 (b) Even f ( − x ) = ln −x = f (x) 1 + (− x ) 2 1 + x 2 (1 + x ) − 2 x (c) f ′ ( x ) = ⋅ 2 x (1 + x 2 ) 2 1 − x2 x (1 + x 2 ) + Sign of f ′ 2 = − −1 − + 0 1 f ( x ) has relative max at x = 1 f ( x ) has relative max at x = −1 (d) max is f (1) = ln 1 = − ln 2 2 lim f ( x ) = −∞ x → 0+ (or lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = −∞ ) x → 0− x →∞ x → −∞ 1 Therefore range = −∞, ln 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB4/BC1 Consider the curve defined by the equation y + cos y = x + 1 for 0 ≤ y ≤ 2π . dy in terms of y . dx (a) Find (b) Write an equation for each vertical tangent to the curve. (c) Find d 2y in terms of y . dx 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB4/BC1 Solution (a) dy − sin y dy = 1 dx dx dy (1 − sin y ) = 1 dx 1 dy = dx 1 − sin y (b) dy undefined when sin y = 1 dx y= π 2 π 2 + 0 = x +1 x= π 2 −1 1 d (c) d y = 1 − sin y dx 2 dx dy − − cos y dx = 2 (1 − sin y ) 2 1 cos y 1 − si n y = 2 (1 − sin y ) = cos y (1 − sin y ) 3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB5/BC2 −x Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = e , and let g be the function given by g( x ) = kx , where k is the nonzero constant such that the graph of f is tangent to the graph of g . (a) Find the x-coordinate of the point of tangency and the value of k . (b) Let R be the region enclosed by the y-axis and the graphs of f and g . Using the results found in part (a), determine the area of R . (c) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region R , given in part (b), about the x-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB5/BC2 Solution y (a) f ′ ( x ) = −e − x ; g ′ ( x ) = k −e − x = k e − x = kx x = −1 and k = −e f ( x ) = e− x x g ( x ) = kx (b) ∫ (e 0 −x −1 − ( −ex )) dx = ∫ 0 −1 (e −x + ex ) dx 0 ex 2 = −e − x + 2 −1 e = ( −1 + 0 ) − −e + 2 e = −1 2 0 ( ) (c) π ⌠ ( e − x ) − ( −ex ) dx ⌡ −1 2 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB6 At time t , t ≥ 0 , the volume of a sphere is increasing at a rate proportional to the reciprocal of its radius. At t = 0 , the radius of the sphere is 1 and at t = 15 , the radius is 4 2. (The volume V of a sphere with a radius r is V = π r 3 .) 3 (a) Find the radius of the sphere as a function of t . (b) At what time t will the volume of the sphere be 27 times its volume at t = 0 ? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 AB6 Solution (a) dV k = dt r dV dr = 4π r 2 dt dt k dr = 4π r 2 r dt k dt = 4π r 3 dr kt + C = π r 4 At t = 0, r = 1, so C = π At t = 15, r = 2, so 15k + π = 16π , k = π π r4 = πt +π r = 4 t +1 4 (b) At t = 0, r = 1, so V ( 0 ) = π 3 4 27 V ( 0 ) = 27 π = 36π 3 4 36π = π r 3 3 r =3 4 t +1 = 3 t = 80 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC3 At time t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π , the position of a particle moving along a path in the xy-plane is t t given by the parametric equations x = e sin t and y = e cos t . π (a) Find the slope of the path of the particle at time t = (b) Find the speed of the particle when t = 1. (c) Find the distance traveled by the particle along the path from t = 0 to t = 1 . 2 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC3 Solution (a) dx = et sin t + et cos t dt dy = et cos t − et sin t dt t dy dy / dt e ( cos t − sin t ) = =t dx dx / dt e (sin t + cos t ) at t = π 2 , π /2 dy e ( 0 − 1) = π /2 = −1 dx e (1 + 0 ) (e sin t + e cos t ) + (e cos t − e sin t ) (b) speed = t 2 t t 2 t when t = 1 speed is (e sin1 + e cos1) + (e cos1 − e sin1) 2 2 =e 2 (c) distance is 1 (e sin t + e cos t ) + (e cos t − e sin t ) ⌠ ⌡0 =∫ t 1 0 t 2 t 2e 2t (sin 2 t + cos 2 t ) dt = ∫ = 2 et 1 0 t 1 0 2 dt 2 e t dt = 2 ( e − 1) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC4 2 x − x 2 for x ≤ 1, Let f be a function defined by f ( x ) = 2 x + kx + p for x > 1. (a) For what values of k and p will f be continuous and differentiable at x = 1 ? (b) For the values of k and p found in part (a), on what interval or intervals is f increasing? (c) Using the values of k and p found in part (a), find all points of inflection of the graph of f . Support your conclusion. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC4 Solution (a) For continuity at x = 1, lim ( 2 x − x 2 ) = f (1) = lim ( x 2 + kx + p ) + x →1− x →1 Therefore 1 = 1 + k + p Since f is continuous at x = 1 and is piecewise polynomial, left and right derivatives exist. f −′ (1) = 0 and f +′ (1) = 2 + k For differentiability at x = 1, 0 = 2 + k . Therefore k = −2, p = 2 (b) f ′ ( x ) = 2 − 2 x, x ≤ 1 2 − 2x > 0 x <1 f ′ ( x ) = 2 x − 2, x > 1 2x − 2 > 0 x >1 Since f increases on each of ( −∞,1) and (1, ∞ ) and is continuous at x = 1, f is increasing on ( −∞, ∞ ) . (c) f ′′ ( x ) = −2, x < 1 f ′′ ( x ) = 2, x > 1 Since f ′′ ( x ) < 0 on ( −∞,1) and f ′′ ( x ) > 0 on (1, ∞ ) and f (1) is defined, (1, f (1)) = (1,1) is a point of inflection. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC5 The length of a solid cylindrical cord of elastic material is 32 inches. A circular cross 1 section of the cord has radius inch. 2 (a) What is the volume, in cubic inches, of the cord? (b) The cord is stretched lengthwise at a constant rate of 18 inches per minute. Assuming that the cord maintains a cylindrical shape and a constant volume, at what rate is the radius of the cord changing one minute after the stretching begins? Indicate units of measure. (c) A force of 2 x pounds is required to stretch the cord x inches beyond its natural length of 32 inches. How much work is done during the first minute of stretching described in part (b)? Indicate units of measure. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC5 Solution 2 1 (a) V = π r h = π ⋅ 32 = 8π 2 2 (b) 0 = dV = 2π rh dr + π r 2 dh ; dt dt dt at t = 1, h = 50 and so 8π = π r 2 ⋅ 50, so r = 2 5 2 dr 2 2 Therefore 0 = 2π (50 ) + π (18 ) dt 5 5 dr 72 = π 40 + dt 25 9 dr =− in/min 125 dt or 8 h V = 8π = π r 2 h, so r = − 1 dr 1 8 2 −8 dh = ⋅ ⋅ Therefore dt 2 h h 2 dt at t = 1, h = 50 so − 1 dr 1 8 2 −8 = ⋅ (18 ) dt 2 50 2500 9 =− in/min 125 18 18 0 0 (c) Work = ∫ 2 x dx = x 2 = 18 2 = 324 in-pounds = 27 foot-pounds Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC6 ∞ Consider the series n= 2 1 , where p ≥ 0 . n ln(n ) p (a) Show that the series converges for p > 1. (b) Determine whether the series converges or diverges for p = 1. Show your analysis. (c) Show that the series diverges for 0 ≤ p < 1. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1992 BC6 Solution (a) 0 < 1 1 < p for ln ( n ) > 1, for n ≥ 3 n ln ( n ) n p by p-series test, 1 ∑n p converges if p > 1 ∞ ∑n and by direct comparison, n=2 (b) Let f ( x ) = 1 , so series is x ln x p 1 converges. ln ( n ) ∞ ∑ f (n ) n=2 ∞ b 1 ⌠ dx = lim ln ln x = lim[ln(ln(b)) − ln(ln 2)] = ∞ b →∞ b →∞ 2 ⌡ 2 x ln x Since f (x) monotonically decreases to 0, the integral test shows ∞ 1 ∑ n ln n diverges. n=2 (c) 1 1 > > 0 for p < 1 , n ln n n ln n p so by direct comparison, ∞ ∑n n=2 p 1 diverges for 0 ≤ p < 1 ln n Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB1 3 2 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = x − 5 x + 3 x + k , where k is a constant. (a) On what intervals is f increasing? (b) On what intervals is the graph of f concave downward? (c) Find the value of k for which f has 11 as its relative minimum. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB1 Solution (a) f ′ ( x ) = 3 x 2 − 10 x + 3 = (3 x − 1) ( x − 3) f ′ ( x ) = 0 at x = 1 and x = 3 3 − + s i gn of f ′ + 3 1 3 1 f is increasing on −∞, and on [3, ∞) 3 (b) f ′′ ( x ) = 6 x − 10 sign of f ′′ + − 5 3 5 The graph is concave down on −∞, 3 (c) From (a), f has its relative minimum at x = 3, so f (3 ) = (3 ) − 5 (3 ) + 3 (3) + k 3 2 = − 9 + k = 11 k = 20 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB2 A particle moves on the x-axis so that its position at any time t ≥ 0 is given by −t x (t ) = 2te . (a) Find the acceleration of the particle at t = 0 . (b) Find the velocity of the particle when its acceleration is 0. (c) Find the total distance traveled by the particle from t = 0 to t = 5 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB2 Solution (a) v (t ) = x′ (t ) = 2e − t − 2te − t a (t ) = x′′ (t ) = −2e −t − 2e − t + 2te − t a ( 0 ) = x′′ ( 0 ) = −2 − 2 = −4 (b) x′′ (t ) = −2e − t ( 2 − t ) = 0 t=2 x′ ( 2 ) = v ( 2 ) = 2e −2 (1 − 2 ) −2 e2 ≈ −0.271 = (c) x′ (t ) = v (t ) = 2e − t (1 − t ) = 0 t =1 x (0 ) = 0 2 ≈ 0.736 e 10 x (5 ) = 5 ≈ 0.067 e x (1) = 2 2 10 +− e e e5 ≈ 1.404 Distance = Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB3/BC1 2 Consider the curve y = 4 + x and chord AB joining the points A( − 4 , 0 ) and B ( 0 , 2 ) on the curve. (a) Find the x- and y-coordinates of the point on the curve where the tangent line is parallel to chord AB . (b) Find the area of the region R enclosed by the curve and the chord AB . (c) Find the volume of the solid generated when the region R , defined in part (b), is revolved about the x-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB3/BC1 Solution slope of AB = (a) 21 = 42 B ( 0, 2 ) A ( −4, 0 ) dy 1 1 1 = = ; dx 2 4 + x 2 4 + x 2 so x = −3, y = 1 Method 1: y = 4 + x ; dy 1 = 1; so 2y = 1 and y = 1, x = −3 dx 2 Method 2: 2 y (b) 0 ⌠ 2 1 3/ 2 1 M e t h o d 1 : 4 + x − x + 2 dx = ( 4 + x ) − x 2 − 2 x 3 4 2 ⌡ −4 2 3/ 2 16 4 ( 4 ) − ( −4 + 8 ) = − 4 = 3 3 3 = Method 2: ∫ 2 0 y3 ( 2 y − 4 ) − ( y − 4 ) dy = y − 3 2 2 2 0 84 = 4− = 33 Method 3: 16 ; Area of triangle = 4 3 16 4 Area of region = − 4 = 3 3 ∫ 0 −4 4 + x dx = Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 0 −4 1993 AB3/BC1 Solution, continued (c) 0 ⌠ Method 1: π ⌡ −4 ( 4+ x ) 2 1 − x + 2 2 2 dx 0 ⌠ 1 = π 4 + x − x 2 + 2 x + 4 dx 4 ⌡ −4 16 8π = π 8 − = ≈ 8.378 3 3 Method 2: ∫ 2 0 2π y ( 2 y − 4 ) − ( y 2 − 4 ) dy = 0 Method 3: π ⌠ ⌡ −4 ( 4+ x ) 2 x2 dx = π 4 x + 2 8π 3 0 −4 = 0 − π ( −16 + 8 ) = 8π 1 16π 2 Volume of cone = π ( 2 ) ( 4 ) = 3 3 16π 8π Volume = 8π − = 3 3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB4/BC3 Let f be the function defined by f ( x ) = ln( 2 + sin x ) for π ≤ x ≤ 2π . (a) Find the absolute maximum value and the absolute minimum value of f . Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (b) Find the x-coordinate of each inflection point on the graph of f . Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB4/BC3 Solution 1 cos x; 2 + si n x (a) f ′ ( x ) = In [π , 2π ], cos x = 0 when x = 3π ; 2 f ( x) x ln ( 2 ) = 0.693 π 2π 3π ln ( 2 ) ln (1) = 0 2 absolute maximum value is ln 2 absolute minimum value is 0 (b) f ′′ ( x ) = = ( − sin x ) ( 2 + sin x ) − cos x cos x 2 ( 2 + si n x ) −2sin x − 1 ( 2 + si n x ) 2 ; f ′′ ( x ) = 0 when sin x = − x= 7π 11π , 66 sign of f ′′ − concavity down π x= 1 2 − + 7π 6 up 11π 6 down 2π 7π 11π and since concavity changes as indicated at these points 6 6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB5 y (1,1) 1 O 1 2 x Note: This is the graph of the derivative of f , not the graph of f . The figure above shows the graph of f ′ , the derivative of f . The domain of f is the set of all x such that 0 < x < 2 . (a) Write an expression for f ′( x ) in terms of x . (b) Given that f (1) = 0 , write an expression for f ( x ) in terms of x . (c) In the xy-plane provided below, sketch the graph of y = f ( x ) . y 2 1 −2 −1 O 1 2 x −1 −2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB5 Solution if 0 < x ≤ 1 x (a) f ′ ( x ) = 2 − x if 1 ≤ x < 2 or f ′ ( x ) = 1 − x − 1 if 0 < x < 2 (b) x2 if 0 < x ≤ 1 2 + C1 f (x) = 2 2 x − x + C if 1 ≤ x < 2 2 2 1 1 0 = f (1) = + C1 ⇒ C1 = − 2 2 1 3 0 = f (1) = 2 − + C2 ⇒ C2 = − 2 2 2 x 1 if 0 < x ≤ 1 2 −2 f (x) = 2 2 x − x − 3 if 1 ≤ x < 2 22 or f (x) = x − 1 ( x − 1) x − 1 − 1 2 (c) y 1 1 2 x −1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB6 Let P( t) represent the number of wolves in a population at time t years, when t ≥ 0 . The population P( t) is increasing at a rate directly proportional to 800 − P( t) , where the constant of proportionality is k . (a) If P(0) = 500 , find P( t) in terms of t and k . (b) If P(2) = 700 , find k . (c) Find lim P( t) . t→ ∞ Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 AB 6 Solution (a) P′ (t ) = k (800 − P (t )) dP = k dt 800 − P − ln 800 − P = kt + C0 800 − P = C1e − kt 800 − 500 = C1e0 C1 = 300 Therefore P (t ) = 800 − 300e − kt (b) P ( 2 ) = 700 = 800 − 300e −2 k k= ln 3 ≈ 0.549 2 ln 3 − t (c) lim 800 − 300e 2 = 800 t →∞ Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC2 2 The position of a particle at any time t ≥ 0 is given by x (t ) = t − 3 and y (t) = (a) Find the magnitude of the velocity vector at t = 5 . (b) Find the total distance traveled by the particle from t = 0 to t = 5 . (c) Find dy as a function of x . dx Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 23 t. 3 1993 BC 2 Solution (a) x′ (t ) = 2t y′ (t ) = 2t 2 x ′ ( 5 ) = 10 y ′ ( 5 ) = 50 v (5 ) = 102 + 502 = 2600 = 10 26 ≈ 50.990 (b) ∫ 5 4t 2 + 4t 4 dt 0 5 = ∫ 2t 1 + t 2 dt 0 = = (c) 3/ 2 2 (1 + t 2 ) 3 5 0 2 ( 263/ 2 − 1) ≈ 87.716 3 dy y′ (t ) 2t 2 = = =t dx x′ (t ) 2t x = t 2 − 3; t 2 = x + 3 t = x+3 dy = x+3 dx or x = t 2 − 3; t = x + 3 2 2 3/ 2 y = t 3 ; y = ( x + 3) 3 3 dy = x+3 dx Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC4 Consider the polar curve r = 2 sin(3θ ) for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . (a) In the xy-plane provided below, sketch the curve. y 2 1 −2 −1 O 1 x 2 −1 −2 (b) Find the area of the region inside the curve. (c) Find the slope of the curve at the point where θ = π 4 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC4 Solution y (a) 2 1 −2 −1 O 1 2 x −1 −2 π 1π 1 (b) A = ∫ 4sin 2 3θ dθ = ∫ (1 − cos 6θ ) dθ = θ − sin 6θ 0 0 2 6 3 π /3 2 ∫0 4 sin 3θ dθ = 2 6 π /6 or ∫ 4 sin 2 3θ dθ = 20 or (c) =π =π x = 2 sin 3θ cos θ y = 2 sin 3θ sin θ dx = −2 sin 3θ sin θ + 6 cos 3θ cos θ dθ dy = 2 sin 3θ cosθ + 6 cos 3θ sin θ dθ dx π dy At θ = , = −2 and = −4, so 4 dθ dθ dy −2 1 = = dx −4 2 or (x 2 + y 2 ) = 6 x2 y − 2 y3 2 dy dy dy + 12 xy − 6 y 2 2 ( x2 + y 2 ) 2 x + 2 y = 6 x2 dx dx dx At θ = π , x = 1 and y = 1 so 4 dy dy dy 4 2 + 2 = 6 + 12 − 6 dx dx dx Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. dy dy Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1 8 + 8 = 12 ⇒ = dx dx 2 π =π 0 1993 BC5 x 2 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = e . (a) Write the first four nonzero terms and the general term for the Taylor series expansion of f ( x ) about x = 0 . (b) Use the result from part (a) to write the first three nonzero terms and the general term x e2 −1 of the series expansion about x = 0 for g( x ) = . x (c) For the function g in part (b), find g′(2) and use it to show that Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com ∞ n 1 =. 4 n =1 4( n + 1)! 1993 BC 5 Solution x (a) e = 1 + x + x 2 x3 ++ 2! 3! + xn + n! ( x / 2) + x ( x / 2) ( x / 2) e = 1+ + + ++ n! 2 2! 3! 2 3 n xx x x = 1+ + 2 + 3 + + n + 2 2 2 ! 2 3! 2 n! 2 3 n x/2 x x2 x3 +2 +3+ (b) e − 1 = 2 2 2! 2 3! x x 2 x x 1 = +2 +3+ 2 2 2! 2 3! x/2 (c) + xn + 2n n ! + x n −1 + 2n n ! ( n − 1) x n −2 + 1 2x +3+ + 2 2 2 ! 2 3! 2n n ! ( n − 1) x n−2 + 1x =+ ++ 8 24 2n n ! ( n − 1) 2n−2 + 1 2⋅2 ′ (2) = 2 + 3 + + g 2 2 ! 2 3! 2n n ! n −1 11 =+ ++ + 8 12 4n ! ∞ n =∑ n =1 4 ( n + 1)! g′ ( x) = ex / 2 −1 x 1 x ⋅ e x / 2 − (1) ( e x / 2 − 1) g′ ( x) = 2 x2 1 2 ⋅ e − ( e − 1) 1 = g′ (2) = 2 4 4 Also, g ( x ) = Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC6 Let f be a function that is differentiable throughout its domain and that has the following properties. f ( x) + f ( y) (i) f ( x + y ) = for all real numbers x , y , and x + y in the domain of f 1 − f ( x ) f (y ) (ii) lim f ( h) = 0 h →0 (iii) lim h →0 f ( h) =1 h (a) Show that f (0) = 0 . (b) Use the definition of the derivative to show that f ′( x) = 1 + [ f ( x) ] . Indicate 2 clearly where properties (i), (ii), and (iii) are used. (c) Find f ( x ) by solving the differential equation in part (b). Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC6 Solution (a) Method 1: f is continuous at 0, so f ( 0 ) = lim f ( x ) = 0 x →0 or Method 2 : f ( 0 ) = f ( 0 + 0 ) = f (0 ) + f (0 ) 1 − f (0 ) f (0 ) ) = 2 f (0 ) ( f ( 0 ) ( −1 − f ( 0 ) ) = 0 f ( 0 ) 1 − f ( 0 ) 2 2 f (0 ) = 0 (b) f ( x + h) − f ( x) h →0 h f ( x ) + f (h ) − f (x) 1 − f ( x ) f (h ) = lim h →0 h f ( h ) 1 + f ( x ) 2 = lim ⋅ h →0 h 1 − f ( x ) f (h ) f ′ ( x ) = lim 1 + f ( x ) = 1⋅ 1− f (x)⋅ 0 [By (i)] 2 = 1 + f ( x ) [By (iii) & (ii)] 2 dy = 1+ y2 dx (c) Method 1: Let y = f ( x ) ; dy = dx 1+ y2 tan −1 y = x + C y = tan ( x + C ) [or C = nπ , n ∈ Z ] or f ( x ) = tan ( x + nπ ) f (0 ) = 0 ⇒ C = 0 f ( x ) = tan x Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1993 BC6 Solution, continued or Method 2: Guess that f ( x ) = tan x 1 + f ( x ) = 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x = f ′ ( x ) f ( 0 ) = tan ( 0 ) = 0 2 Since the solution to the D.E. is unique f ( x ) = tan x is the solution. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 1 Let f be the function given by f ( x) = 3 x 4 + x 3 − 21x 2 . (a) Write an equation of the line tangent to the graph of f at the point (2 , − 28) . (b) Find the absolute minimum value of f. Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (c) Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection on the graph of f. Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 1 (a) f ′ ( x ) = 12 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 42 x f ′ ( 2 ) = 24 y + 28 = 24 ( x − 2 ) or y = 24 x − 76 (b) 12 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 42 x = 0 3 x ( 4 x 2 + x − 14 ) = 0 3x ( 4 x − 7 ) ( x + 2 ) = 0 7 x = 0, x = , x = −2 4 − f′ − + 7 4 0 −2 + min must be at –2 or 7 . 4 7 f ( −2 ) = −44 f = −30.816 4 Absolute min is – 44 f ′′ ( x ) = 36 x 2 + 6 x − 42 (c) = 6 (6 x 2 + x − 7 ) = 6 ( 6 x + 7 ) ( x − 1) 7 Zeros at x = − , x = 1 6 f ′′ + − + − 7 6 1 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com The x coordinates of the points of inflection are x = − 7 and x = 1 6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 2-BC 1 Let R be the region enclosed by the graphs of y = e x , y = x , and the lines x = 0 and x = 4. (a) Find the area of R . (b) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the x-axis. (c) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 2- BC 1 y 4 (a) Area = ∫ e x − x dx 0 x2 =e − 2 4 x 0 16 = e 4 − − (e0 − 0 ) 2 = e4 − 9 ≈ 45.598 OR Using geometry (area of triangle) ∫ 1 e x dx − ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 0 2 4 or Using y-axis ∫ 1 0 e4 4 y dy + ∫ y − ln y dy + ∫ 4 − ln y dy 1 (b) Vx = π ∫ 4 4 0 (e ) − ( x ) x2 2 dx 4 = π ∫ e 2 x − x 2 dx 0 4 1 x3 = π e2 x − 3 0 2 1 64 1 = π e8 − − e 0 − 0 3 2 2 131 1 = π e8 − 6 2 ≈ 1468.646π ≈ 4613.886 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com R x 4 1994 AB 2- BC 1 (continued) [or] Using geometry (Volume of the cone) 1 3 π ∫ ( e x ) dx − π ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 4 4 2 0 4 π 1 = π e 2 x − ⋅ 64 2 0 3 1 64π 1 = π e8 − − 2 3 2 Using y- axis 1 4 e 2π ∫ y ⋅ y dy + ∫ y ( y − ln y ) dy + ∫ y ( 4 − ln y ) dy 0 1 4 4 (c) V y = 2π ∫ x ( e x − x ) dx 4 0 or 1 4 e 2 2 Vy = π ∫ y 2 dy + ∫ y 2 − ( ln y ) dy + ∫ 16 − ( ln y ) dy 0 1 4 4 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 3 Consider the curve defined by x 2 + xy + y 2 = 27 . (a) Write an expression for the slope of the curve at any point ( x , y ) . (b) Determine whether the lines tangent to the curve at the x-intercepts of the curve are parallel. Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (c) Find the points on the curve where the lines tangent to the curve are vertical. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 3 (a) 2 x + xy′ + y + 2 yy′ = 0 y′ = −2 x − y x + 2y (b) If y = 0, x 2 = 27 x = ±3 3 at x = 3 3 , y′ = −2 ⋅ 3 3 = −2 33 at x = −3 3 , y′ = 2⋅3 3 = −2 −3 3 Tangent lines at x-intercepts are parallel. (c) y′ undefined if x + 2 y = 0 ( −2 y ) + ( −2 y ) y + y 2 = 27 2 3 y 2 = 27 y = ±3 Points are ( − 6, 3) and (6, − 3) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 4 A particle moves along the x-axis so that at any time t > 0 its velocity is given by v(t ) = t ln t − t . At time t = 1 , the position of the particle is x(1) = 6. (a) Write an expression for the acceleration of the particle. (b) For what values of t is the particle moving to the right? (c) What is the minimum velocity of the particle? Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (d) Write an expression of the position x(t ) of the particle. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 4 1 (a) a (t ) = v′ (t ) = ln t + t ⋅ − 1 = ln t t (b) v (t ) = t ln t − t > 0 t ( ln t − 1) > 0 t >e (c) v′ (t ) = ln t = 0 t =1 v′ − 0 0 + t 1 minimum velocity is v (1) = −1 (d) ∫ t ln t − t dt 11 1 = t 2 ln t − t 2 − t 2 + C 42 2 1 3 = t 2 ln t − t 2 + C ; 2 4 3 6 = x (1) = 0 − + C 4 27 C= ; 4 1 3 27 x (t ) = t 2 ln t − t 2 + 2 4 4 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 5-BC 2 A circle is inscribed in a square as shown in the figure above. The circumference of the circle is increasing at a constant rate of 6 inches per second. As the circle expands, the square expands to maintain the condition of tangency. (Note: A circle with radius r has circumference C = 2π r and area A = π r 2 ) (a) Find the rate at which the perimeter of the square is increasing. Indicate units of measure. (b) At the instant when the area of the circle is 25π square inches, find the rate of increase in the area enclosed between the circle and the square. Indicate units of measure. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 5-BC 2 (a) P = 8 R dP dR =8 dt dt dC dR 6= = 2π dt dt dR 3 dP 24 =; = inches/second dt π dt π ≈ 7.639 inches/second R (b) Area = 4 R 2 − π R 2 d ( Area ) dR dR = 8R − 2π R dt dt dt dR = (4 − π ) 2R dt Area of circle = 25π = π R 2 R=5 d ( Area ) 120 = − 30 inches 2 /second dt π 30 = ( 4 − π ) inches 2 /second π ≈ 8.197 inches 2 /second Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 AB 6 Let F ( x) = ∫ x 0 sin(t 2 ) dt for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 . (a) Use the trapezoidal rule with four equal subdivisions of the closed interval [0 ,1] to approximate F (1) . (b) On what intervals is F increasing? (c) If the average rate of change of F on the closed interval [1, 3] is k, find in terms of k . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com ∫ 3 1 sin(t 2 )dt 1994 AB 6 (a) F (1) = 1 sin t 2 dt ∫ () 0 (1 − 0 ) ⋅ 1 ⋅ sin 02 + 2sin 1 2 + 2sin 1 2 + 2sin 3 2 + sin 12 ≈ 4 2 4 2 4 ≈ 0.316 (b) F ′ ( x ) = sin ( x 2 ) F ′ ( x ) = 0 when x 2 = 0, π , 2π , ... x = 0, π , 2π − + F′ x 0 π + 2π 3 F is increasing on 0, π and on 2π , 3 (c) F (3) − F (1) k= = 2 ∫ 3 1 ∫ 3 1 sin (t 2 ) dt 2 sin (t 2 ) dt = 2k Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 3 A particle moves along the graph of y = cos x so that the x-coordinate of acceleration is always 2. At time t = 0 , the particle is at the point (π ,− 1 ) and the velocity vector of the particle is (0, 0 ). (a) Find the x- and y-coordinates of the position of the particle in terms of t. (b) Find the speed of the particle when its position is (4 , cos 4 ). Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 3 (a) x′′ (t ) = 2 ⇒ x′ (t ) = 2t + C x′ ( 0 ) = 0 ⇒ C = 0; x′ (t ) = 2t x (t ) = t 2 + k , x ( 0 ) = π = k x (t ) = t 2 + π y (t ) = cos (t 2 + π ) (b) dy = −2t sin (t 2 + π ) dt 2 dx dy s (t ) = + dt dt = ( 2t ) 2 2 ( + −2t sin (t 2 + π ) ) 2 = 4t 2 + 4t 2 sin 2 (t 2 + π ) when x = 4, t 2 + π = 4; t 2 = 4 − π s = 4 ( 4 − π ) + 4 ( 4 − π ) si n 2 4 ≈ 2.324 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 4 2 Let f ( x ) = 6 − x . For 0 < w < 6 , let A( w) be the area of the triangle formed by the coordinate axes and the line tangent to the graph of f at the point (w ,6 − w 2 ). (a) Find A(1) . (b) For what value of w is A( w) a minimum? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 4 (a) f ( x ) = 6 − x 2 ; f ′ ( x ) = −2 x f ′ (1) = −2 y − 5 = −2( x − 1) or y = −2 x + 7 7 y i nt : 7 2 17 49 A (1) = ( 7 ) = 22 4 x i nt : (b) f ′( w) = −2 w; y − ( 6 − w2 ) = −2 w ( x − w ) 6 + w2 x int: 2w A ( w) y int: 6 + w2 (6 + w ) = A′ ( w ) = 22 4w ( ) 4 w 2 ( 6 + w2 ) ( 2 w ) − 4 ( 6 + w2 ) 2 16 w2 A′ ( w ) = 0 when ( 6 + w2 ) (3w2 − 6 ) = 0 w= 2 + − A′ 0 2 w 6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 5 Let f be the function given by f ( x ) = e −2 x 2 . (a) Find the first four nonzero terms and the general term of the power series for f ( x ) about x = 0. (b) Find the interval of convergence of the power series for f ( x ) about x = 0. Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (c) Let g be the function given by the sum of the first four nonzero terms of the power series for f ( x ) about x = 0. Show that f ( x ) − g( x ) < 0.02 for − 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 5 (a) eu = 1 + u + e u2 u3 ++ 2 3! + un + n! 4 x4 8x6 = 1− 2x + − + 2 3! −2 x 2 2 ( −1) + n 2n x 2 n + n! (b) The series for eu converges for −∞ < u < ∞ 2 So the series for e −2 x converges for −∞ < −2 x 2 < ∞ And, thus, for −∞ < x < ∞ Or ( −1) 2n+1 x 2(n+1) ⋅ an +1 n! = lim lim n n 2n n →∞ a n →∞ ( n + 1)! ( −1) 2 x n n +1 22 x = 0 <1 n →∞ n + 1 = lim 2 So the series for e −2 x converges for −∞ < x < ∞ (c) f ( x ) − g ( x ) = 16 x8 32 x16 − + 4! 5! This is an alternative series for each x, since the powers of x are even. Also, an + 1 22 = x < 1 for − 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 so terms are decreasing in absolute an n +1 value. 16 x8 16 ( 0.6 ) Thus f ( x ) − g ( x ) ≤ ≤ 4! 4! = 0.011 < 0.02 8 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 6 Let f and g be functions that are differentiable for all real numbers x and that have the following properties. (i) f ′( x ) = f ( x ) − g( x) (ii) g′( x ) = g( x ) − f ( x) (iii) f (0) = 5 (iv) g(0) = 1 (a) Prove that f ( x ) + g( x ) = 6 for all x . (b) Find f ( x ) and g( x ) . Show your work. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1994 BC 6 (a) f ′ ( x ) + g ′ ( x ) = f ( x ) − g ( x ) + g ( x ) − f ( x ) = 0 so f + g is constant. f ( 0 ) + g ( 0 ) = 6, so f ( x ) + g ( x ) = 6 (b) f ( x ) = 6 − g ( x ) so g′ ( x) = g ( x) − 6 + g ( x) = 2g ( x) − 6 dy dy = 2 y − 6; = dx dx 2y − 6 1 ln 2 y − 6 = x + C 2 ln 2 y − 6 = 2 x + K 2 y − 6 = e2 x+ K 2 y − 6 = Ae 2 x x = 0 ⇒ y = 1 so − 4 = A 2 y = −4e 2 x + 6 y = 3 − 2e 2 x = g ( x ) f ( x ) = 6 − g ( x ) = 3 + 2e 2 x Or Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com f ( x ) = 6 − g ( x ) so g′ ( x) = g ( x) − 6 + g ( x ) = 2g ( x) − 6 g ′ ( x ) − 2 g ( x ) = −6 d g ( x ) e −2 x = −6e −2 x dx g ( x ) e −2 x = ∫ −6e −2 x dx = 3e −2 x + C g ( x ) = 3 + Ce 2 x 1 = g ( 0 ) = 3 + C ; C = −2 g ( x ) = 3 − 2e 2 x f ( x ) = 6 − g ( x ) = 3 + 2e 2 x 1994 BC 6 (b) continued Or f ′ − g ′ = 2 f − 2 g = 2 ( f − g ) , so f − g = Ae 2 x f (0 ) − g (0 ) = 4 = A f ( x ) − g ( x ) = 4e 2 x f (x) + g ( x) = 6 2 f ( x ) = 6 + 4e 2 x f ( x ) = 3 + 2e 2 x g ( x ) = 6 − f ( x ) = 3 − 2e 2 x Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB1 2x Let f be the function given by f ( x) x2 . x1 (a) Find the domain of f . Justify your answer. (b) In the viewing window provided below, sketch the graph of f . 3 5 5 3 [Viewing Window] [ 5,5] [ 3,3] (c) Write an equation for each horizontal asymptote of the graph of f . (d) Find the range of f . Use f ( x) to justify your answer. x2 Note: f ( x) 3 ( x 2 x 1) 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB1 Solution (a) Domain: all real numbers since x 2 x10 (b) 3 5 5 3 Viewing Window [ 5,5] [ 3,3] (c) y 2 and y (d) Range is 2 4 , 2 or 3 Sign of f is given by x 2.309 y 2 2 , implying that f has a minimum at 2 and, with asymptotes, that f is never greater than 2. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB2 A particle moves along the y-axis so that its velocity at any time t v(t ) t cos t . At time t 0 , the position of the particle is y 3 . 0 is given by (a) For what values of t , 0 t (b) Write an expression for the acceleration of the particle in terms of t . (c) Write an expression for the position y (t ) of the particle. (d) For t zero. 5 , is the particle moving upward? 0 , find the position of the particle the first time the velocity of the particle is Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB2 Solution (a) t cos t or v t 0, 0 Particle is moving up for 0 t (b) a t 2 and for 3 2 t 5. vt cos t t sin t (c) y t v t dt ut du dt yt dv cos t dt v sin t t cos t dt t sin t sin t dt t sin t cos t C 3 1 C; C 2 yt (d) y t sin t cos t 2 2 2 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB3 Consider the curve defined by 8 x 2 5 xy y3 149 . dy . dx (a) Find (b) Write an equation for the line tangent to the curve at the point (4, 1) . (c) There is a number k so that the point (4.2, k ) is on the curve. Using the tangent line found in part (b), approximate the value of k . (d) Write an equation that can be solved to find the actual value of k so that the point (4.2, k ) is on the curve. (e) Solve the equation found in part (d) for the value of k . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB3 Solution 16 x 5 y 5 x (a) dy dx (b) dy dx dy dy 3y2 dx dx 0 16 x 5 y 5x 3 y 2 64 5 20 3 4, 1 3 y 1 3x 4 (c) y 1 3 4.2 4 y k (d) (e) k 0.4 0.4 8 4.2 2 5 4.2 k k 3 149 0.373 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB4/BC2 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. The shaded regions R1 and R2 shown above are enclosed by the graphs of f ( x) and g ( x) 2 x . x2 (a) Find the x- and y-coordinates of the three points of intersection of the graphs of f and g . (b) Without using absolute value, set up an expression involving one or more integrals that gives the total area enclosed by the graphs of f and g . Do not evaluate. (c) Without using absolute value, set up an expression involving one or more integrals that gives the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region R1 about the line y 5 . Do not evaluate. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB4/BC2 Solution (a) 2, 4 4,16 2 (b) 0.767 2x 0.767, 0.588 x 2 dx 4 2 or (–0.766, 0.588) x 2 2 x dx or 0.588 0 2 y dy 2 (c) 0.767 5 x2 4 0.588 2 y 5 2x ln y ln 2 2 dy 16 ln y ln 2 4 y dy dx or 2 0.588 0 5 y 2 y dy 2 4 0.588 5y y ln y ln 2 dy Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB5/BC3 As shown in the figure above, water is draining from a conical tank with height 12 feet and diameter 8 feet into a cylindrical tank that has a base with area 400 square feet. The depth h , in feet, of the water in the conical tank is changing at the rate of (h 12) 12 feet per minute. (The volume V of a cone with radius r and height h is V r h .) 3 (a) Write an expression for the volume of water in the conical tank as a function of h . (b) At what rate is the volume of water in the conical tank changing when h 3 ? Indicate units of measure. (c) Let y be the depth, in feet, of the water in the cylindrical tank. At what rate is y changing when h 3 ? Indicate units of measure. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB5/BC3 Solution (b) r h 4 12 1 3 V (a) 1 3 1 h 3 dV dt r 2 h 1 h 3 h3 27 h 2 dh 9 dt h2 h 12 9 9 V is decreasing at 9 ft 3 / min (c) Let W = volume of water in cylindrical tank dW dy W 400 y; 400 dt dt dy 400 9 dt 9 ft/min y is increasing at 400 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB6 The graph of a differentiable function f on the closed interval 1, 7 is shown above. Let h( x) x 1 f (t ) dt for 1 x 7. (a) Find h(1) . (b) Find h (4) . (c) On what interval or intervals is the graph of h concave upward? Justify your answer. (d) Find the value of x at which h has its minimum on the closed interval 1, 7 . Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 AB6 Solution (a) h 1 (b) h 4 1 1 f t dt f4 0 2 (c) 1 x 3 and 6 x 7 h is concave up when: h is increasing, or f is increasing, or hx 0 (d) minimum at x 1 because: h increases on [1,5] and decreases on [5,7], so minimum is at an endpoint h7 R1 area R1 area R2 0 and h 1 R2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 0 1995 BC1 Two particles move in the xy-plane. For time t x t 2 and y y 3t 2 0 , the position of particle A is given by 3t (t 2) 2 , and the position of particle B is given by x 4 and 2 2. (a) Find the velocity vector for each particle at time t (b) Set up an integral expression that gives the distance traveled by particle A from t = 0 to t = 3. Do not evaluate. (c) Determine the exact time at which the particles collide; that is, when the particles are at the same point at the same time. Justify your answer. (d) In the viewing window provided below, sketch the paths of particles A and B from t 0 until they collide. Indicate the direction of each particle along its path. 3. 5 7 7 5 Viewing Window [ 7, 7] [ 5,5] Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC1 Solution (a) VA VB 1, 2t 4 ; VA 3 33 , ; VB 3 22 (b) distance 3 0 12 1, 2 33 , 22 2t 4 2 dt 3t 4; t 4 2 When t 4 , the y-coordinates for A and B are also equal. Particles collide at (2,4) when t 4 . (c) Set t 2 (d) 5 7 7 5 Viewing Window [ 7, 7] [ 5,5] Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC4 Let f be a function that has derivatives of all orders for all real numbers. Assume f (1) 3, f (1) 2, f (1) 2 , and f (1) 4 . (a) Write the second-degree Taylor polynomial for f about x 1 and use it to approximate f (0.7) . (b) Write the third-degree Taylor polynomial for f about x 1 and use it to approximate f (1.2) . (c) Write the second-degree Taylor polynomial for f , the derivative of f , about x 1 and use it to approximate f (1.2) . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC4 Solution (a) T2 x f 0.7 (b) T3 x f 1.2 (c) T3 x f 1.2 3 2 x1 2 3 0.6 0.09 3.69 2x1 3 2x 1 x1 4 x1 6 2 0.008 3 3 0.4 0.04 2 2x 1 2 2x 1 2 0.4 0.08 2 3 2.645 2 1.52 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC5 Let f ( x) x 2 , g ( x) cos x, and h( x) x 2 cos x . From the graphs of f and g shown above in Figure 1 and Figure 2, one might think the graph of h should look like the graph in Figure 3. (a) Sketch the actual graph of h in the viewing window provided below. 40 6 6 6 Viewing Window [ 6, 6] x [ 6, 40] (b) Use h ( x) to explain why the graph of h does not look like the graph in Figure 3. (c) Prove that the graph of y x 2 cos(kx) has either no points of inflection or infinitely many points of inflection, depending on the value of the constant k . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC5 Solution (a) 40 6 6 6 (b) h x 2 x sin x; h x 2 cos x (c) y x 2 cos x 0 for all x , so graph must be concave up everywhere 2 k 2 cos kx If k 2 2, y 0 for all x , so no inflection points. If k 2 2, y changes sign and is periodic, so changes sign infinitely many times. Hence there are infinitely many inflection points. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC6 Graph of f Let f be a function whose domain is the closed interval 0 ,5 . The graph of f is shown above. Let h( x) x 3 2 0 f (t )dt . (a) Find the domain of h . (b) Find h (2) . (c) At what x is h( x) a minimum? Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1995 BC6 Solution (a) 0 x 35 2 6x4 (b) h x h2 x 1 3 2 2 1 3 f4 2 2 f (c) h is positive, then negative, so minimum is at an endpoint h h4 0 6 0 5 0 f t dt f t dt 0 0 since the area below the axis is greater than the area above the axis therefore minimum at x 4 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB1 Note: This is the graph of the derivative of f , not the graph of f . The figure above shows the graph of f , the derivative of a function f . The domain of f is the set of all real numbers x such that 3 x 5 . (a) For what values of x does f have a relative maximum? Why? (b) For what values of x does f have a relative minimum? Why? (c) On what intervals is the graph of f concave upward? Use f to justify your answer. (d) Suppose that f (1) 0 . In the xy-plane provided, draw a sketch that shows the general shape of the graph of the function f on the open interval 0 x 2 . y 1 2 x Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB1 Solution (a) x 2 f x changes from positive to negative at x or f is increasing to the left of x 2 and decreasing to the right of x (b) x 4 f x changes from negative to positive at x or f is decreasing to the left of x (c) 2 4 4 and increasing to the right of x 1,1 and 3,5 f is increasing on these intervals. (d) y x 1 2 2 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 4 1996 AB2 Let R be the region in the first quadrant under the graph of y 1 for 4 x x 9. (a) Find the area of R . (b) If the line x k divides the region R into two regions of equal area, what is the value of k ? (c) Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region R and whose cross sections cut by planes perpendicular to the x-axis are squares. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB2 Solution 9 (a) 4 y dx dx x 2 1 x y x=4 x=9 4 k (b) 4 dx dx 1 x k 2x 4 1 2k 24 1 25 k 4 9 or k k dx 1 or x 9 (c) Volume 4 9 4 1 x dx x 9 dx = x 4 k dx x 2 dx 9 ln x 4 ln 9 4 or 0.811 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 9 x 1996 AB3/BC3 The rate of consumption of cola in the United States is given by S (t ) Ce kt , where S is measured in billions of gallons per year and t is measured in years from the beginning of 1980. (a) The consumption rate doubles every 5 years and the consumption rate at the beginning of 1980 was 6 billion gallons per year. Find C and k . (b) Find the average rate of consumption of cola over the 10-year time period beginning January 1, 1983. Indicate units of measure. (c) Use the trapezoidal rule with four equal subdivisions to estimate (d) Using correct units, explain the meaning of 7 5 7 5 S (t ) dt . S (t ) dt in terms of cola consumption. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB3/BC3 Solution St Ce kt S0 6 C S5 (a) 12 12 6e5 k 6 2 e5 k ln 2 k 5 (b) Average rate 1 13 3 3 0.138 or 0.139 13 3 6e ( ln 2 )t 5 dt e 2.6ln 2 e0.6ln 2 billion gal/yr ln 2 (19.680 billion gal/yr) (c) (d) 7 5 S t dt 1 S5 4 2 S 5.5 2S 6 2 S 6.5 S7 This gives the total consumption, in billions of gallons, during the years 1985 and 1986. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB4/BC4 This problem deals with functions defined by f ( x) constant and 2 x 2. (a) Sketch the graphs of two of these functions, y x b sin x , where b is a positive x sin x and y y y 6 6 x 3sin x . 6 6 x 6 6 6 x 6 (b) Find the x-coordinates of all points, 2 x tangent to the graph of f ( x) x b sin x . 2 , where the line y x b is (c) Are the points of tangency described in part (b) relative maximum points of f ? Why? (d) For all values of b line y x . 0 , show that all inflection points of the graph of f lie on the Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB4/BC4 Solution (a) y 6 y 6 6 6 x 6 6 6 x 6 (b) y 1 1 b cos x b cos x 0 cos x 0 y x b x b sin x b b sin x 1 sin x 3 or 2 2 x (c) No, because f (d) f x sin x b sin x x 1 or f x 0 at x-coordinates of points of tangency 0 0 f x x b0 x at x-coordinates of any inflection points Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB5 An oil storage tank has the shape as shown above, obtained by revolving the curve 94 y x from x 0 to x 5 about the y-axis, where x and y are measured in feet. 625 Oil flows into the tank at the constant rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. (a) Find the volume of the tank. Indicate units of measure. (b) To the nearest minute, how long would it take to fill the tank if the tank was empty initially? (c) Let h be the depth, in feet, of oil in the tank. How fast is the depth of oil in the tank increasing when h 4 ? Indicate units of measure. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB5 Solution 9 (a) Volume V 0 25 ydy 150 ft 3 3 or 5 V x9 2 0 94 x dx 150 ft 3 625 or 471.238 ft 3 or 471.239 ft 3 (b) time Volume rate 150 8 therefore, 59 minutes h (c) V dV dt dV dt 25 ydy 03 dh 25 h dt 3 8 when h 4, 8 25 3 2 dh dt dh 12 ft/min dt 25 or 0.152 ft/min or 0.153 ft/min Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB6 is tangent to the graph of y Line x x2 at the point Q , as shown in the figure 500 above. (a) Find the x-coordinate of point Q . (b) Write an equation for line . (c) x2 shown in the figure, where x and y are 500 measured in feet, represents a hill. There is a 50-foot tree growing vertically at the top of the hill. Does a spotlight at point P directed along line shine on any part of the tree? Show the work that leads to your conclusion. Suppose the graph of y x Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 AB6 Solution (a) Let Q be a, a a2 500 dy x 1 dx 250 Setting slopes equal: a2 a 500 a a 1 250 a 100 20 or dy dx 1 x 250 Equation for : y a x 20 250 1 Setting y -values equal: a a 20 250 a 100 1 (b) y a a2 500 3 x 20 5 2502 (c) Height of hill at x = 250: y 250 500 125 feet Height of line at x = 250: y 3 250 20 5 170 feet Yes, the spotlight hits the tree since the height of the line is less than the height of the hill + tree, which is 175 feet. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC1 Consider the graph of the function h given by h( x) e x2 for 0 x . (a) Let R be the unbounded region in the first quadrant below the graph of h . Find the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the y-axis. (b) Let A( w) be the area of the shaded rectangle shown in the figure above. Show that A( w) has its maximum value when w is the x-coordinate of the point of inflection of the graph of h . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC1 Solution (a) Volume 2 x2 xe 0 2 lim b b 0 2 lim b dx xe x2 1 e 2 dx b x2 1 e 2 2 lim b 0 b2 10 e 2 1 2 2 or ln y 0 (b) Maximum: A w we Aw 2 1 Volume e e w2 w 2 Aw 0 when w Aw 0 when w Inflection: 2 h x e x ,h x x2 ln y dy w2 1, 2 1, 2 1. 2 Therefore, max occurs when w 2e a 1 2 w2 . 0 when w 2e 0 1 , Aw hx lim a 2 w2 e w2 dy x 2 2x 2 xe x2 2x e 1 2 , x2 1 2 x2 . hx 0 when x hx 0 when x hx 0 when x 1, 2 1, 2 1. 2 Therefore, inflection point when x 1. 2 Therefore, the maximum value of A( w) and the inflection point of h( x) occur when x and w are 12 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC2 The Maclaurin series for f ( x) is given by 1 x 2! x2 3! x3 4! xn (n 1)! (a) Find f (0) and f (17) (0) . (b) For what values of x does the given series converge? Show your reasoning. (c) Let g ( x) x f ( x) . Write the Maclaurin series for g ( x) , showing the first three nonzero terms and the general term. (d) Write g ( x) in terms of a familiar function without using series. Then, write f ( x) in terms of the same familiar function. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC2 Solution f (a) an 0 1 n! f0 f n 17 n 1! 1 2 a1 17!a17 0 17! 1 18! 1 18 (b) xn 1 n 2! lim xn n 1! n lim n x n2 01 Converges for all x , by ratio test (c) g x xf x x (d) e x ex x2 2! xn 1 n 1! x3 3! x2 xn 2! n! 1 g x xf x fx 1x ex 1 if x x 1 if x 0 0 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC5 An oil storage tank has the shape as shown above, obtained by revolving the curve 94 y x from x 0 to x 5 about the y-axis, where x and y are measured in feet. 625 Oil weighing 50 pounds per cubic foot flowed into an initially empty tank at a constant rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. When the depth of oil reached 6 feet, the flow stopped. (a) Let h be the depth, in feet, of oil in the tank. How fast was the depth of oil in the tank increasing when h 4 ? Indicate units of measure. (b) Find, to the nearest foot-pound, the amount of work required to empty the tank by pumping all of the oil back to the top of the tank. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC5 Solution h (a) V 0 25 y dy 3 dV dt 25 3 dh dt dh 25 4 3 dt at h 4, 8 dh dt 12 ft/min 25 h 6 (b) W 25 3 9y 50 0 W W 25 50 3 25 50 3 6 9y y dy 1 2 y 3 2 dy 0 3 2 9y2 3 25 y2 5 6 0 W 69, 257.691 ft-lbs to the nearest foot-pound 69,258 ft-lbs Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC6 The figure above shows a spotlight shining on point P( x , y ) on the shoreline of Crescent Island. The spotlight is located at the origin and is rotating. The portion of the shoreline on which the spotlight shines is in the shape of the parabola y x 2 from the point 1,1 to the point 5 , 25 . Let be the angle between the beam of light and the positive x- axis. (a) For what values of (b) Find the x- and y-coordinates of point P in terms of tan . (c) If the spotlight is rotating at the rate of one revolution per minute, how fast is the point P traveling along the shoreline at the instant it is at the point 3 ,9 ? between 0 and 2 does the spotlight shine on the shoreline? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1996 BC6 Solution (a) tan tan 1 1 25 5 1 2 Therefore, 1 4 2 or 0.785 tan 1 5 or 1.373 tan 1 5 4 y x2 x xx Therefore, x tan (b) tan y (c) d dt dx dt x2 tan 2 2 d dy ; 2 tan sec 2 dt dt dx At 3,9 : 10 2 20 dt dy 2 3 10 2 120 dt sec 2 Speed 20 20 2 120 d dt 2 37 or 382.191 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB1 A particle moves along the x-axis so that its velocity at any time t v(t ) 3t 2 2t 1 . The position x(t ) is 5 for t = 2. 0 is given by (a) Write a polynomial expression for the position of the particle at any time t (b) For what values of t , 0 t 3 , is the particle’s instantaneous velocity the same as its average velocity on the closed interval 0 ,3 ? (c) Find the total distance traveled by the particle from time t 0 until time t Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 0. 3. 1997 AB1 Solution (a) x t v t dt 3t 2 2t 1 dt t3 t2 t C x2 842C xt 5; C t3 t2 t 3 3 x3 x0 30 18 3 5 3 2t 1 5 (b) avg. vel. 3t 2 t 1 19 or 1.786 3 (c) distance 3 0 3 0 v t dt 3t 2 2t 1 dt 17 or 3t 2 2t 1 0 vt t 1 3 ,t 1 x0 3 x1 1113 2 x3 27 9 3 3 18 distance 32 18 2 17 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB2 Let f be the function given by f ( x) 3cos x . As shown above, the graph of f crosses the y-axis at point P and the x-axis at point Q . (a) Write an equation for the line passing through the points P and Q . (b) Write an equation for the line tangent to the graph of f at point Q . Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (c) Find the x-coordinate of the point on the graph of f , between points P and Q , at which the line tangent to the graph of f is parallel to line PQ . (d) Let R be the region in the first quadrant bounded by the graph of f and line segment PQ . Write an integral expression for the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region R about the x-axis. Do not evaluate. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB2 Solution (a) slope y3 30 0 /2 6 x0 (b) f ( x) 3sin x f ( / 2) y0 3sin 3x (c) f ( x) /2 3 /2 3sin x 6 2 sin x x 6 0.690 /2 (d) V 3cos x 2 6 2 x3 dx 0 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB3 Let f be the function given by f ( x) x 3. (a) On the axes provided below, sketch the graph of f and shade the region R enclosed by the graph of f , the x-axis, and the vertical line x 6 . (b) Find the area of the region R described in part (a). (c) Rather than using the line x 6 as in part (a), consider the line x w , where w can be any number greater than 3. Let A( w) be the area of the region enclosed by the graph of f , the x-axis, and the vertical line x w . Write an integral expression for A( w) . (d) Let A( w) be as described in part (c). Find the rate of change of A with respect to w when w 6 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB3 Solution (a) y R x 6 (b) area x 3 dx 3 23 w (c) A w (d) dA dw dA dw 3 2 x3 3 6 3/ 2 3 3.464 x 3 dx w3 3 1.732 w6 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB4 Let f be the function given by f ( x) x3 6 x 2 p , where p is an arbitrary constant. (a) Write an expression for f ( x) and use it to find the relative maximum and minimum values of f in terms of p . Show the analysis that leads to your conclusion. (b) For what values of the constant p does f have 3 distinct roots? (c) Find the value of p such that the average value of f over the closed interval [ 1, 2] is 1. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB4 Solution (a) f ( x) x3 6 x 2 p f ( x) 3 x 2 12 x 0 3x x 4 0 x 0, x 4 f ( x) changes sign from positive to negative at x f ( x) changes sign from negative to positive at x or f x 6 x 12, f 12, f 0 relative maximum at x 0, f (0) relative minimum at x 4, f (4) 4 12 p p 32 (b) f ( x) has three distinct real roots when p so 0 p 32 (c) 1 2 2 1 1 x3 6 x 2 114 x 2 x3 34 1 3 0 4 0 and p 32 0 , p dx 1 2 px 16 16 2 p 4 1 1 1 2 4 p 1 57 3p 1 3 4 23 5.75 p 4 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB5/BC5 The graph of the function f consists of a semicircle and two line segments as shown above. Let g be the function given by g ( x) x 0 f (t )dt . (a) Find g (3) . (b) Find all the values of x on the open interval 2 ,5 at which g has a relative maximum. Justify your answer. (c) Write an equation for the line tangent to the graph of g at x 3 . (d) Find the x-coordinate of each point of inflection of the graph of g on the open interval 2 ,5 . Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB5/BC5 Solution (a) g 3 3 0 f (t ) dt 1 4 1 2 22 1 2 (b) g ( x) has a relative maximum at x because g' x f ( x) changes from the positive to negative at x (c) g (3) g' 3 y 1 2 f (3) 1 2 2 2 1 1x 3 (d) graph of g has points of inflection with x-coordinates x = 0 and x = 3 because g x f ( x) changes from the positive to negative at x or 0 and from negative to positive at x 3 because g x f x changes from increasing to decreasing at x 0 and from decreasing to increasing at x 3 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB6/BC6 Let v(t ) be the velocity, in feet per second, of a skydiver at time t seconds, t 0 . After dv her parachute opens, her velocity satisfies the differential equation 2v 32 , with dt initial condition v(0) 50 . (a) Use separation of variables to find an expression for v in terms of t , where t is measured in seconds. (b) Terminal velocity is defined as lim v(t ) . Find the terminal velocity of the skydiver t to the nearest foot per second. (c) It is safe to land when her speed is 20 feet per second. At what time t does she reach this speed? Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 AB6/BC6 Solution (a) dv 2v 32 dt dv 2dt v 16 ln v 16 2t v 16 2t A e v 16 Ce 2 v 16 A e Ae 2t 2t 50 16 Ce0 ; C v 34e (b) lim v t t (c) v t e 2t 2t 16 lim t 34e 2 ;t 17 34 2t 34e 16 2t 16 16 20 1 2 ln 2 17 1.070 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC1 During the time period from t 0 to t 6 seconds, a particle moves along the path given by x(t ) 3 cos( t ) and y (t ) 5 sin( t ) . (a) Find the position of the particle when t (b) On the axes provided below, sketch the graph of the path of the particle from t = 0 to t = 6 . Indicate the direction of the particle along its path. (c) How many times does the particle pass through the point found in part (a)? (d) Find the velocity vector for the particle at any time t . (e) Write and evaluate an integral expression, in terms of sine and cosine, that gives the distance the particle travels from t = 1.25 to t = 1.75 . 2.5 . Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC1 Solution (a) x 2.5 3cos 2.5 0 y 2.5 5sin 2.5 5 (b) y x (c) 3 (d) x (t ) vt (e) distance 3 sin t t ,5 cos 3 sin 1.75 1.25 y (t ) 5 cos 9 2 sin 2 t t t 25 2 cos 2 t dt 5.392 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC2 Let P( x) 7 3( x 4) 5( x 4) 2 2( x 4)3 6( x 4) 4 be the fourth-degree Taylor polynomial for the function f about 4. Assume f has derivatives of all orders for all real numbers. (a) Find f (4) and f (4) . (b) Write the second-degree Taylor polynomial for f about 4 and use it to approximate f (4.3) . (c) Write the fourth-degree Taylor polynomial for g ( x) x 4 f (t ) dt about 4. (d) Can f (3) be determined from the information given? Justify your answer. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC2 Solution (a) f 4 f P4 4 3! 2, f (b) P3 x 12 5x 4 3 10 x 4 f 4.3 (c) P4 g , x 4 4 7 3x 4 P3 x x 7 3 10 0.3 x 4 2x 4 6x 4 6 0.3 3 2 2 0.54 P3 (t ) dt 7 3t 4 7x 4 2 5t 4 3 x4 2 2 2 2t 4 5 x4 3 3 3 dt 1 x4 2 4 (d) No. The information given provides values for f 4 , f 4 , f 4 , f 4 and f 4 4 only. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC3 Let R be the region enclosed by the graphs of y ln x 2 1 and y cos x . (a) Find the area of R . (b) Write an expression involving one or more integrals that gives the length of the boundary of the region R . Do not evaluate. (c) The base of a solid is the region R . Each cross section of the solid perpendicular to the x-axis is an equilateral triangle. Write an expression involving one or more integrals that gives the volume of the solid. Do not evaluate. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC3 Solution y (a) ln x 2 1 cos x x 0.91586 let B 0.91586 R area x (b) L B B 2 2x 1 x 2 1 dx B B 1 sin x 2 B B cos x ln x 2 1 dx 1.168 dx (c) 3 base 2 base area of cross section B volume B 1 cos x ln x 2 1 2 3 cos x ln x 2 1 4 2 3 cos x ln x 2 1 2 dx Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC4 Let x ky 2 2 , where k 0. 2 k is on the graph of x (a) Show that for all k 0 , the point 4, (b) Show that for all k 0 , the tangent line to the graph of x 4, (c) 2 k ky 2 ky 2 2. 2 at the point passes through the origin. Let R be the region in the first quadrant bounded by the x-axis, the graph of x ky 2 2 , and the line x 4 . Write an integral expression for the area of the region R and show that this area decreases as k increases. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1997 BC4 Solution y (a) 4 4 2 k k 4, 2 k 4 2 R 2 4 x ky 2 (b) x 2 dy 1 2ky dx dy 1 dx y 2 / k 2 2k the tangent line is 2 1 x4 k 2 2k 1 x which contains (0, 0) 2 2k y y or slope of the line through 0, 0 and 4, 2 / k is 2/k 4 which is the same as the slope of the tangent line (c) A 2/ k 4 0 ky 2 2 dy or A 1 k 4 2 4 2 0.5 k 3 22 dA k 3 dk x 2 dx A 1.5 0 for all k 0 thus the area decreases as k increases Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com 1 2 2k ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2010 for the course MECHANICAL 236 taught by Professor Fsdfsdf during the Summer '99 term at Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus.

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