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Unformatted text preview: 2010 Animal Development –Topics First quarter: Common features of development , Genetic and experimental approaches, The Mouse Second quarter: Development of the Xenopus body plan: germ layers and axes determination. Morphogenesis. Third quarter: Development of the nervous system, molecular basis of neural tube defects, Development of endodermal organs. Fourth quarter: Development of the limb, regeneration, evolution Professors: Dr. Bernadette Holdener, [email protected]; 631-632-8292. August 31st – September 28th and October 21st – November 11th. Ofﬁce Hours -Room 346 - 3rd ﬂoor of CMM: Tuesday/Thursday 1:00 - 3:00 pm. Monday/Wednesday/Friday 10-11 am (also Biochemistry Major Advising hours). If these times conﬂict with your other courses, send an email to make an appointment. Dr. Gerald Thomsen, [email protected]; 631-632-8536, September 30th – October 19th and November 16th - Dec 14th. Ofﬁce Hours - Room 348 - 3rd ﬂoor of CMM: Time: TBA Graduate TAs Zunaira Shuja [email protected] Wednesday 10:00-11:00 am 471 Life Science Kaustav Mukhrjee, Graduate TA [email protected] Wednesday 2:20-3:30 pm 471 Life Science Undergraduate TAs Michelle Cohen, [email protected] Tuesday 2:30 – 3:30 pm Room 026 Life Sciences Qiao Lu, Undergraduate TA [email protected] Friday 2:00 – 3:00 pm 471 Life Science Liujing Xing, Undergraduate TA [email protected] Monday 4:00-5:00 pm 471 Life Science Required Text and readings: Essential Developmental Biology 2nd edition, J.M. W. Slack, Blackwell Publishing. Two copies of this text are available on reserve (2 hr limit) in the Science and Engineering reading room on the ﬁrst ﬂoor of the Melville Library. In addition, readings may be assigned from primary literature or review articles. These articles will be posted on Blackboard under Course Documents. Grades: Tests (95%) + Quizzes (5%) Quizzes – 5 per quarter – see schedule Must be take prior to class on Blackboard, no make ups. Location: Javits 100, 11:20 – 12:40 Exam 1 – Tuesday, September 28th Exam 2 – Tuesday, October 19th Exam 3 – Thursday, November 11th No make up exams – lowest of 1-3 will be dropped Location: TBA Final Exam – Tuesday, Dec 14th, 2:15 – 4:45 pm, MANDATORY Exams: • Multiple choice and true/false. Approximately 50 questions. • Questions of varying difﬁculty - 1/3 require simple knowledge of deﬁnitions 2/3 require more complex thinking. • Based on lecture material, assigned readings, and study questions. • There will be NO make-ups for the ﬁrst THREE exams or quizzes • We will drop the lowest of the ﬁrst THREE exams for all students. • The Final Exam is MANDATORY and covers the fourth quarter. • A make up Final Exam will only be scheduled if you have a documented medical or legal reason. Double scheduling or non-emergency travel are not an approved documented excuse. Academic Honesty: We will hold every student to the highest of academic standards. This applies to all tests, quizzes, excuses for missed exams, etc. Students suspected of academic dishonesty will be reported to the academic judiciary committee, and receive a ﬁnal grade of F in the COURSE regardless of the offense. First quarter reading assignments Developmental Biology How does an organism faithfully develop from a fertilized egg? Day 1 Day 3 Week 4 Week 9 CDC estimates that 1:33 children are affected by a birth defect Genetic Downʼs 1:900 Chromosome syndromes 1:600 Tay Sachʼs PKU 1:12,000 Hershprungʼs Metabolic disorders 1:3,500 Environmental Toxins Radiation Rubella 1:100,000 Fifths Chickenpox Toxoplasmosis Genital Herpes HIV 1:2,700 Syphilis 1:2000 Folic acid deﬁciency Alcohol 1:1,000 Medications Metabolic disorders Rh disease 1:1,400 Multifactorial Spina biﬁda 1:2000 Nervous system and eye 1:235 Anencephaly 1:8,000 Cleft lip/palate 1:930 Heart & circulation 1:115 Muscles & Skeleton 1:130 Club foot 1:735 Genital and urinary tract 1:135 Respiratory tract 1:900 Hypothyroidism 1:3,500 Autism 2010 CDC, March of Dimes Figure 21.11 Gilbert 7th or 8th Risk of Malformation Occurring Pre-embryonic 0 - 2 weeks
Fertilization Cleavage Early Gastrulation Langman’s Medical Embryology Figure 1 Risk of Malformation Occurring Embryonic 3 - 8 weeks
Gastrulation Organogenesis Langman’s Medical Embryology Figure 1 Risk of Malformation Occurring Fetal 9 - 38 weeks
Maturation Birth Langman’s Medical Embryology Figure 1 Embryogenesis “Development of an embryo from a fertilized egg” Developmental Biology Understanding the mechanisms of: Designating cell lineages Establishing the body plan Development of organ systems “Development: emergence of organized structures from an initial simple group of cells” Similar problems in development: Regional speciﬁcation- How does pattern appear in a previously similar population of cells? Spatial and temporal pattern of cell activities that create well-ordered structures/ organism. Cell differentiation – How do cells become structurally and functionally different from each other? Morphogenesis – How does the three dimensional form of an embryo develop? Growth – How is the size and proportion of body parts controlled? Evolution – How do changes in development lead to changes in form? Regional speciﬁcation - How does pattern appear in a previously similar population of cells? www.dotynmr.com/ http://www.kumc.edu/cic/images/picture5.jpg Regional speciﬁcation – Occurs through spatial and temporal pattern of cellular activities Brain Anterior Ventral Left Dorsal Right Posterior www.dotynmr.com/ Cell Differentiation - How does a single cell give rise to hundreds of different cell types? Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Germ Cells Morphogenesis – Cell and tissue movements that give the organism three dimensional form During Gastrulation dramatic change in form occurs as tissues become relocated. http://ﬂymove.uni-muenster.de/Stages/Stage06/Stg6page.html?http&&&ﬂymove.uni-muenster.de/Stages/Stage06/Stg6txt.html Morphogenesis - – Cell and tissue movements that give the organism three dimensional form Growth – Increase in size and proportion of body parts. How do cells in the developing organism know how many times to divide or how large to become? Shar-pei mediates arrest of cell proliferation Development 129: 5719-530, 2002 Over expression of the cell death gene dronc results in a small eye JBC 275: 40416-40424, 2000 Humans Sharpei - anomaly of hyaluranon metabolism 5 1/2 months 3 years Journal of Pediatrics 136: 62-68, 2000 Growth - How do cells in the developing organism know how many times to divide? Lipolymphohemangiomas: abnormal growth in the lymphatic system, skin, muscles, and bones. http://www.chinese-tools.com/forum/read.html?q=16%2C7764 Evolution - How do changes in development result in new body forms? Overview of development Xenopus Zebraﬁsh Chick Mouse Gametogenesis and Fertilization Cleavage Axis speciﬁcation Gastrulation Organogenesis Organ maturation Wolpert 3.2 Germ line vs Somatic cells – Both contain the full complements of genes but have different capacity for differentiation Mouse Oct4 in germ cells Drosophila vasa in germ cells http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi? book=dbio&part=A4665 Cytoplasmic Control of Germ Cell Development 2N Primary oocyte Meiotic prophase I DNA Spindle Meiotic metaphase I Polar 1N body Secondary oocyte Zona pellucida 19.22 Meiotic anaphase I Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Meiosis are exacerbated by increasing levels of dietary estrogen Day 0: Ovulation - completion of Meiosis I Female pronucleus Oocyte polar body Zona pellucida Nuclear factors vs cytoplasmic control of development In vitro Fertilization (2) Egg and sperm retrieved Oocyte aspiration Alternatives: gamete intrafallopian transfer and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (3) fertilization (1) Ovary stimulated Culture cells in vitro (4) Embryo transferred to Uterus Figure 3.11 Gilbertʼs Ethics book Making the ﬁrst cut - ensure that embryos are diploid Fertilization How do sperm recognize the egg? How does the egg prevent fertilization by multiple sperm? Why not the more the merrier? Zygote Male and Female Pronuclei ICSI - Intra cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Immobilizing the spermʼs tail before picking up sperm head Injection of sperm into the egg Fertilized egg - two pronuclei www.advancedfertility.com Why is diploid not sufﬁcient for some mammalian embryos? http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Deep/GenomImprintID20032.html Cleavage - Division of fertilized egg (zygote) into blastomeres: smaller cells with no increase in mass. Wolpert 5.3 ,3.5, 3.10, 3.22, http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/ dd2/echino/cleavage/intro.html http://www.biologycorner.com/ worksheets/tiger/read6-2.html Cleavage - Division of fertilized egg (zygote) into blastomeres: smaller cells with no increase in mass. Wolpert 5.3 ,3.5, 3.10, 3.22, http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/ dd2/echino/cleavage/intro.html X X http://www.biologycorner.com/ worksheets/tiger/read6-2.html Assessing Embryo quality Cell number Cell regularity Degree of fragmentation Multinucleation Vacuoles Granularity Thickness of Zona Pellucida Removing a blastomere for genetic testing: FISH – ﬂuorescent in situ hybridization - X – blue; 21 - Pink Figure 21.10 and 21.4 Gilbert http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-PGD.htm When is the fate of a blastomere determined? Remove fertilization envelope Separate into 4 blastomeres Normal pluteus larva Figure 3.15 Gilbert Plutei developed from single blastomeres of a 4-cell embryo What is the developmental potential of a blastomere? 11.38 Gilbert What do identical twins tell us about the potential of human blastomeres to develop? Day 3: Morula and compacted Morula 11.29 What Triggers Epithelial Organization? Slack 2.8 Day 5 - 7: Blastocyst – how do the outer polarized cells become specialized and the inner cells remain pluripotent? *
Blastocyst hatching blastoyst cavity, trophoblast, and innercell mass. Entering uterus Initial implantation In the uterus Gilbert 9th 8.2 Human Gastrulation - Week 2-3 – what regulates embryo polarity, differentiation of germ layers? Dorsal view 11.33 Human Development - Week 3 – how do the major organs develop? Day 16 Trilaminar disc Day 19-20 Formation of The CNS and Appearance of Somites ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Bernadette-holdener,g during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.
- Fall '08