Bisphenol A Effects

Bisphenol A Effects - BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 80, 10661071...

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BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 80, 1066–1071 (2009) Published online before print 21 January 2009. DOI 10.1095/biolreprod.108.074815 Bisphenol A Effects on the Growing Mouse Oocyte Are Influenced by Diet 1 Ailene Muhlhauser, 4 Martha Susiarjo, 3,4 Carmen Rubio, 5 Jodi Griswold, 4 Galen Gorence, 4 Terry Hassold, 4 and Patricia A. Hunt 2,4 School of Molecular Biosciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, 4 Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, 5 Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain ABSTRACT Growing evidence suggests that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has the ability to disrupt several different stages of oocyte development. To date, most attention has focused on the effects of BPA on the periovulatory oocyte, and considerable variation is evident in the results of these studies. In our own laboratory, variation in the results of BPA studies conducted at different times appeared to correlate with changes in mill dates of animal feed. This observation, coupled with reports by others that dietary estrogens in feed are a confounding variable in studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, prompted us to evaluate the effect of diet on the results of BPA studies of the periovulatory oocyte. Genetically identical females were placed on a high- or low-phytoestrogen diet prior to mating. Their female offspring were exposed to BPA, oocytes collected, and meiotic spindle and chromosome characteristics compared between control and BPA-treated females. We observed significant diet-related variation in both the frequency of abnormalities in oocytes from untreated females and in the response to BPA. Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on meiosis depends, at least in part, on diet. We suggest that variation in the conclusions of recent BPA studies reflects differences in the diets used, as well as other methodological differences. Because meiotic distur- bances are a feature of all studies to date, however, we conclude that low levels of BPA adversely affect the meiotic process. aneuploidy, bisphenol A, BPA, diet, gamete biology, meiosis, oocyte, phytoestrogens, toxicology INTRODUCTION Low-dose bisphenol A (BPA) exposure (i.e., daily doses below 50 mg/kg) during fetal and neonatal development has been reported to cause a variety of developmental defects in rodents (reviewed in Ref. 1). BPA is the building block of polycarbonate plastic and a component of resin coatings. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products, including food and beverage packaging, compact disks, eyeglass lenses, dental sealants, and ‘‘ carbonless ’’ paper used in receipts, makes BPA a ubiquitous part of daily life. Studies of human populations in several different countries have demonstrated low levels of BPA in the blood and urine of virtually all test subjects (reviewed in Ref. 2). In addition, detectable levels have been reported in breast milk and colostrum [3–5], follicular and amniotic fluid [6, 7], and umbilical cord blood and placental tissue [8]. BPA acts as a synthetic hormone, eliciting estrogenic
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course BIO 325 taught by Professor Bernadette-holdener,g during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Bisphenol A Effects - BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 80, 10661071...

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