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Daley cell fate review 2009

Daley cell fate review 2009 - npg Regulation of the first...

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REVIEW Correspondence: Lingyi Chen a , George Q Daley b a Tel: +86-22-2350-5821; Fax: +86-22-2350-5821 E-mail: [email protected] b Tel: +1-617-919-2013; Fax: +1-617-730-0222 E-mail: [email protected] npg Cell Research (2010) 20:982-993. © 2010 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved 1001-0602/10 $ 32.00 www.nature.com/cr Molecular basis of the first cell fate determination in mouse embryogenesis Lingyi Chen 1 , Dekun Wang 1 , Zhaoting Wu 1 , Liping Ma 1 , George Q Daley 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tian- jin 300071, China; 2 Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospital Boston and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA; 3 Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4 Division of Hematology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5 Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA, USA; 6 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA, USA Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. Up to the eight-cell embryo stage, the blastomeres are morphologically identical and distrib- uted symmetrically in the mammalian embryo. Functionally, in some species, they are all totipotent. However, due to the compaction of blastomeres and the asymmetrical cell division at the late phase of the eight-cell embryo, the blastomeres of the morula are no longer identical. During the transition from morula to blastocyst, blastomeres dif- ferentiate, resulting in the first cell fate decision in embryogenesis, namely, the segregation of the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. In this review, we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms essential for the cell fate choice during blastocyst development, including transcriptional regulation, epigenetic regulation, microRNAs, and signal transduc- tion. Keywords : inner cell mass; trophectoderm; embryogenesis Cell Research (2010) 20 :982-993. doi:10.1038/cr.2010.106; published online 13 July 2010 Introduction A zygote can give rise to a complex organism through cell proliferation and differentiation. The first differen - tiation event in embryogenesis is the segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM) in the blastocyst. During the formation of the blastocyst, the zy- gote gradually loses its developmental potential. The zy- gote is totipotent, developing into not only the fetus but also the placenta. The totipotency is maintained in the blastomeres of the two-cell stage embryo. After mechani- cal separation of the blastomeres of the two-cell stage embryo, each blastomere is able to give rise to an adult mouse [1]. As the embryo develops further, the develop- mental potential of individual blastomere decreases. No mouse has been derived from a single blastomere at the four-cell stage or later [2, 3]. Yet, when aggregated with ‘carrier’ blastomeres, single four- and eight-cell stage blastomeres are able to contribute to all the tissues of the embryo, suggesting that they are pluripotent [4]. Upon
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