Lecture 5 - Lecture 5: September 8, 2010 Review We examined...

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Lecture 5: September 8, 2010
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Review We examined the construction of the ideal city. It contains a rigid class hierarchy, no social mobility, no innovation, and very few freedoms and rights for either the people or the rulers. There was a laborer class, a warrior class, and a ruler class.
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The Virtuous City The analysis of the ideal city ends 427d5 and the task of finding out what justice is within it begins. The ideal city must be wise or prudent ( phronēsis ), courageous ( andreia ), temperate or moderate ( sōphrosynē ) and just: these + justice are the main or “cardinal” VIRTUES or EXCELLENCES of the Greeks. The city is called WISE because the RULER GUARDIANS (the group within the society that is the smallest number) are knowledgeable of what is best for the city. Courage is a result of the WARRIOR GUARDIANS preserve the norms and laws of the society from both internal and external enemies. Temperance is found in all members of the society: it is found in the “unanimity” of all members—the rulers and the lowliest craftsperson —that the rulers are those who ought to rule.
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The word “justice” Justice for the Greeks clearly comes from their notion of TELEOLOGY telos = the goal or aim that is intrinsic to a things nature. The Greek word for JUSTICE ( dikaiosynē ) comes from the word dikē .” Dike was the daughter of Zeus who helped him govern. – Whereas animals have instinct, human beings are given “ dikē ” which means “instruction.” The Goddess was also given the task of punishment. – The enemy of “ dikē ” is “ biē ” or violence. So human beings are given a sort of instruction from the Gods on how to live, which separates us from mere animals. Justice for the Greeks ultimately means “conformity to the law” or the principles of a civilized rather than barbarous society , i.e. this meant individual conformity to an orderly, harmonious, social existence. Justice came to have a legal meaning: it indicated a legal claim of one person on another and to indicate general conformity to the laws of society.
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Justice in the City Justice in the city is found within the initial setup of the city: that each person must find a place in the city and practice a skill or trade for which they are best suited. Justice is “doing one’s own work and not
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Lecture 5 - Lecture 5: September 8, 2010 Review We examined...

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