ven2lec3_(evolution_and_history)

ven2lec3_(evolution_and_history) - VEN 2 Evolution and...

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Unformatted text preview: VEN 2 Evolution and History of Grapevines Readings in Biology of the Grapevine Lecture 1 = pp. 41 47 Lecture 2 = pp. 17 22 and 27 - 31 Lecture 3 = pp. 4 9 and 22 - 27 History of Vitis: Relations with geologic time scale Era Period Years ago (millions) Significant Events Precambrian 4,500 Presumptive origin of life Mesozoic Triassic 230 First dinosaurs Jurassic 181 Angiosperms appear. Ancestral form of Vitis presumed to have arisen in North America Cretaceous 135 Continents drifting. Labruscoid forms similar to V. aestivalis and V. riparia inhabit cooler regions Cenozoic Tertiary 63 Evidence of two distinct races of Vitis (American and Eurasian) 58 Vitis acquires creeping habit. Fossil representative of Vitis , inhabited sub- tropical forest of Eastern France. Continents in ~ modern positions. History of Vitis: Relations with geologic time scale Period Epoch Years ago (millions) Significant Events Tertiary Eocene 58 Vitis acquires creeping habit. Fossil representative of Vitis , inhabited sub- tropical forest of Eastern France. Continents in ~ modern positions. Miocene 25 Lower Miocene species leaves morphologically similar to present day Muscadinia. Pliocene 12 Vitis proevinifera , near-labruscoid form present in France. Quaternary Pleistocene 2 Repeated glaciations in N. Hemi. Recent (Holocene) 0.01 Evolution of man ( Homo ), rise of civilization Origins of Vitaceae : Occurred ~180 million years ago early Jurassic Presumed origin: Vitaceae from Cissus- like progenitor Morphological resemblance to present-day Muscadinia Bush habit likely Bird-dispersed over Laurasia Origins of Vitaceae Cont: 40 million years ago late Eocene Two races: American and Eurasian Climbing habit acquired extensive forest habitats Origins of Vitis : Fossil evidence Fossilized seeds (seed prints) show definitive evidence that Vitis arose at least 60 million years ago. They have been found in sediments in England, America and Greenland....
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ven2lec3_(evolution_and_history) - VEN 2 Evolution and...

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