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ven2lec4_(phyll&industry)

ven2lec4_(phyll&industry) - VEN 2 Phylloxera and...

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VEN 2 Phylloxera and the World Grape Industries
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Phylloxera Scientific name: Daktulosphaira vitifoliae FITCH A Homopteran type of insect (aphids, scale, and white flies). Co-evolved in Eastern North America with native Vitis species The insect has both below ground and aerial portions to its life-cycle Rarely see the above-ground type of Phylloxera in California The below ground insect can kill grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L. cultivars)
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Phylloxera The ‘radicicole’ is the below-ground insect with its distinct life cycle The ‘gallicole’ is the above-ground insect and with its distinct life-cycle. This portion forms galls on leaves of American Vitis spp., but not on V. vinifera in California. Recently, leaf galls (from Phylloxera) have been found on grape rootstocks growing at several nurseries in California.
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A drawing of Phylloxera from the 1870’s A drawing of Phylloxera from the 1870’s
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Grape phylloxera, Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, vitifoliae, adult female, eggs, adult female, eggs, and nymphs and nymphs Photo by Jack Kelly Clark
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A. Phylloxera Biology
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Leaf Galls
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Life cycle of phylloxera in California Life cycle of phylloxera in California
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10 generations 3 generations 5 generations
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Root heavily infested with grape Phylloxera Root heavily infested with grape Phylloxera Photo by Jack Kelly Clark
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Movement
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Damage to Grapevines Roots of susceptible vines become distorted by nodosities and tuberosities The regeneration of new roots is inhibited Water and mineral nutrient uptake becomes impaired. Necrotic spots (which are the result of secondary fungal infections) develop at feeding sites. These infections can kill large portions of the root system.
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Root cross sections Tuberosity necrosis Parenchyma necrosis Last year’s necrosis Gall
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Mature roots + phylloxera Tuberosities Fungal necrosis Above ground damage Presumptions
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Phylloxera probably infested one vine in the center portion of Phylloxera probably infested one vine in the center portion of the dead or dying vines and then spread from vine to vine. the dead or dying vines and then spread from vine to vine.
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History of Grape Phylloxera Native range was eastern North America and some portions of northern South America. This is one of the reasons Vitis vinifera cultivars failed in Colonial America. It was introduced into Europe on specimens imported to museums in 1863. By 1900, 75% of vineyards in France were destroyed. It spread rapidly throughout France and then to other locations in Europe and N. Africa. Spread to California in 1870 – 1873 (remember CA History).
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V. girdiana V. californica V. riparia M. rotundifolia V. rufomentosa V. aestivalis V. labrusca V. cinerea V. solonis V. berlandieri and monticola V. champinii V. candicans V. rupestris American Vitis species: geographical range and distribution
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V. vinifera V. vinifera New host V. vulpina V. aestivalis US Southeast V. riparia US Northeast Original host Phylloxera origin ?
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