ven2lecc14_(mineralnutfert)mod

ven2lecc14_(mineralnutfert)mod - VEN 2 VEN Grapevine...

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Unformatted text preview: VEN 2 VEN Grapevine Mineral Grapevine Nutrition and Fertilization and Essential Nutrient Elements and their Sources Sources Essential Elements Used in Essential Relatively Large Amounts Relatively Mostly from Mostly Air and Water Water Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen From From Soil Solids Soil Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Essential Elements Used in Essential Relatively Small Amounts Relatively From Soil Solids Iron Manganese Boron Copper Zinc Chlorine Molybdenum Cobalt Nutrient Major Functions Deficiency Symptoms Chlorosis of basal leaves, yield reduction Chlorosis of leaves in the middle of the shoot first, then to basal leaves, yield reduction N K P Mg Zn B Fe Mn Structural component of proteins, nucleic acids and chlorophyll Involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport; stomatal functioning and acts as an osmoticum Used in high-energy bonds (ATP) and Chlorosis or reddening of basal found in nucleic acids leaves (depends upon cultivar), reduced set Found in chlorophyll molecule; enzyme activator Involved in pollination, synthesis of IAA and chloroplast development Involved w/carbohydrate metabolism, pollination and fertilization Involved with chlorophyll biosynthesis, enzyme activator Involved w/splitting of H2O in Pn, enzyme activator Chlorosis of basal leaves Chlorosis of apical leaves; formation of shot berries Chlorosis of apical leaves; formation of shot berries Chlorosis of apical leaves first Chlorosis of basal leaves N BUDGET OF THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPEVINES SEEDLESS Growth Period Leaves Shoots Clusters After Harvest Fallen leaves Prunings Remolilization ~35 g/vine ~10 g/vine ~30 g/vine 75 g/vine 75 ~20 g/vine ~15 g/vine ~ 5 g/vine 40 g/vine 40 Potassium Budget of Thompson Seedless Grapevines (g/vine) Seedless Growth Period Leaves Stems Clusters After Harvest ~12 ~26 ~43 Total 83 Shoot trimming ~5 Fallen leaves ~8 Prunings ~11 Fruit harvest ~45 Total 69 The average and high and low amount of several mineral The nutrients in one tonne of fruit from grapevines.a nutrients Mineral Mineral Nutrient N P K Ca Mg Average High Low ----------------(kg / t)----------------1.46 0.28 2.47 0.50 0.10 2.06 0.39 3.69 0.93 0.16 0.90 0.22 1.59 0.27 0.05 a There are 2.2 lbs per kg and 2200 lbs per metric tonne. Nitrogen Cycling within a Vineyard Roots Trunk Cordons Leaves Nitrogen Nitrogen Reserves Reserves Stems Clusters Dead Dead Roots Roots Soil Nitrogen Soil or Fertilizer Fertilizer Fallen leaves Prunings Deficiencies in California Deficiencies Common Nitrogen Potassium Zinc Boron Less Common Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Not Observed Copper Molybdenum Chlorine Calcium Sulfur Excesses in California Nitrogen Chloride Boron Grapevine N Fertilizer Program Grapevine 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) Assessing vineyard/vine N status Determination of N fertilizer amounts Kinds of N fertilizers Timing of fertilization events Effects of N on vegetative and Effects reproductive growth reproductive 1.) Assessing vine nutrient status 1.) a.) deficiency symptoms b.) soil analysis c.) tissue analysis Nitrogen deficiency: Leaf symptoms 1.) Assessing vine nutrient status 1.) a.) deficiency symptoms – deficiency by the time this is observed by vine growth may already be adversely affected. 1.) Assessing vine nutrient status 1.) a) Soil analysis “Soil Analysis is of no value in Soil determining N needs. This is due to the transient nature of its main available form (NO3) iin the soil profile n available and the unavailability of organic-N fraction until it is mineralized.” fraction L.P. Christensen, UCCE Specialist Raisin Production Manual 1.) Assessing vine nutrient status 1.) c.) Tissue Analysis c.) Time of Sampling Type of Tissue Sampled Form of Nitrogen Time of Sampling Time Bloom and/or Veraison Definite Growth Stage Repeatable Convenient Type of Tissue Sampled Type Petioles opposite the cluster at bloom Petioles of mature leaves at veraison Leaf blades Fruit at harvest Canes during dormancy Form of Nitrogen Form Petioles NO3-N, NH4-N, total N Leaf Blades – total N Fruit – total N, arginine Canes – total N, arginine Canes What do most growers use in CA? What Most grape growers use either petioles Most collected at bloom and/or petiole samples collected at veraison to assess vineyard nutrient status. They will have the petioles analyzed for NO3-N and/or total N. A few analyzed -N growers may have the leaf blades analyzed for total N. analyzed NITRATE-NITROGEN NITRATE-NITROGEN Bloom Petiole Levels (ppm) Deficient Questionable Adequate Excessive Possibly toxic Nitrate-Nitrogen Nitrate-Nitrogen (ppm) (ppm) Less than 350 350 - 500 500 – 1,200 Over 2,000 Over 3,000 A. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Cultivar Rootstock Time petioles sampled (during growing Time season and/or during the day) season Irrigation/rainfall prior to sample Type of irrigation (flood or drip) Environment just prior to or the day of Environment sample collection sample When last fertilized or fertility of soil in the When vineyard vineyard -nitrogen of four table grape cultivars over a ----------------- NO3 (ppm) four year period. --------------------------------Vines were Kearney Ag. Center Vines Flame Seedlessgrown at the74 274 187 926 Perlette 66 215 49 703 Ruby Seedless 132 949 1088 1029 Thompson Seedless 316 1244 787 --- Cultivar ---------------Year----------------------------Year-------------1990 1991 1992 1993 It is not until you get to petiole nitrate-N values below 200 ppm that you get a significant decrease in organ N at harvest. Grapevine Fertilization Program Grapevine 2.) Determination of fertilizer amounts It will depend upon whether it is a It maintenance program or one to correct a deficiency deficiency for a maintenance program one needs for to determine how much of the mineral to nutrient is removed from the vineyard nutrient (i.e. develop a N budget) (i.e. determine the efficiency with which fertilizer is taken up. a.) b.) The average and high and low amount of several mineral The nutrients in one tonne of fruit from grapevines.a nutrients Mineral Mineral Nutrient N P K Ca Mg Average High Low ----------------(kg / t)----------------1.46 0.28 2.47 0.50 0.10 2.06 0.39 3.69 0.93 0.16 0.90 0.22 1.59 0.27 0.05 a There are 2.2 lbs per kg and 2200 lbs per metric tonne. Grapevine Fertilization Program Grapevine 3.) Kinds of N fertilizers “Generally the choice of the formulation of nitrogen can be based mostly upon cost.” L.P. Christensen, UCCE Specialist Grapevine Fertilization Program Grapevine 4.) Timing of fertilization events One must know when the N is being utilized by the vine to choose the utilized appropriate date to apply the fertilizer. appropriate When do vines require the most N during the growing season? during 1.) Approximately two thirds of the current season’s above ground requirement goes to the leaves and above stems (main axis of the shoot), the other third goes to the fruit. to 2.) Approximately two thirds of the current season’s N Approximately requirement is taken up between budbreak and sometime between berry set and veraison. sometime 3.) Some of the nitrogen required by the current Some season’s above ground growth may be obtained from N in the trunk (or cordons if present) and the root system root L.E. Williams’ recommendation for N fertilization application timing fertilization Split applicationsa 1st application – one month after BB st application 2nd application – just after berry set. a apply one half the total fertilizer to be used each time. time. When do you not want to apply a not nitrogen fertilizer? nitrogen 1.) Avoid applying N in winter/early spring if the Avoid fertilizer is susceptible to leaching during this fertilizer season. 2.) An application of N fertilizer just prior to or at An bloom will increase the amount of berries that fail to set. to 3.) A post-harvest application of an N fertilizer is post-harvest probably not as efficient as some thought. For one to consider this time as appropriate, one needs to assess vine health, length of season remaining and soil type. Inefficient use of nitrogen: Inefficient 1.) Contributes to greater use of energy Contributes reserves reserves 2.) Increased production cost 3.) Possible environmental pollution of Possible nitrates in water nitrates Grapevine Fertilization Program Grapevine 5.) Effects of N on vegetative and Effects reproductive growth reproductive Effects of N Fertilization on Growth, Yield and Fruit Characteristics Yield Parameter Vegetative growth Yield Berry Sugar N Compounds in Fruit - increase and decrease respectively; * - no effect; ? :- may or may not have effect Deficient Non-deficient Deficient Non-deficient Vineyards vineyards Vineyards vineyards * ? ? or Grapevine K Fertilization Program Grapevine 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) Assessing vineyard/vine nutrient status Determination of fertilizer amounts Kinds of fertilizers Timing of fertilization events Effects of mineral nutrients on Effects vegetative and reproductive growth. vegetative Potassium Deficiency POTASSIUM POTASSIUM Potassium (%) Bloom Petiole Levels Deficient Questionable Adequate Midsummer Petiole Levels Deficient Adequate Less than 1.0 1.0 to 1.5 Over 1.5 Below 0.5 Above 0.8 POTASH RATES ON GRAPEVINES POTASH Irrigation Method Furrow or Sprinkler Drip Chloride* Sulfate ---------- lbs./ vine (2.2 lbs. = 1 kg) ------Deficiency Chloride* Sulfate Mild Moderate Severe Application Application Method Method 2.5 3.5 4–4.5 Banded 3 4 5-6 0.5 1.0 1.5 Split 0.5 1.0 2.0 Split-Slug * One must be careful when applying potassium chloride. Deficiencies in California Deficiencies Common Nitrogen Potassium Zinc Boron Less Common Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Not Observed Copper Molybdenum Chlorine Calcium Sulfur Excesses in California Nitrogen Chloride Boron Zinc Deficiency Zinc Zinc Deficiency – Flame Seedless ZINC ZINC Bloom Petiole Levels (ppm) Total Zinc (ppm) Deficient Questionable Adequate Less than 15 15 6o 26 Over 26 ZINC ZINC Correction of Deficiency Application Timing Material : : : Dilute Two Weeks Prebloom Through Bloom Neutral Zinc (52% Zn) Zinc Oxide (75% Zn) 2-3 lbs. Zn / acre (2.2 – 2-3 3.4 kg/ha) 3.4 Boron Deficiency Boron Boron Deficiency Boron BORON BORON Petiole Levels (ppm) Deficient Questionable Adequate Possibly toxic Toxic Total Boron (ppm) Less than 25 26-30 Over 30 100-150 and above Over 300 in blades BORON FOLIAR SPRAY FOLIAR 2 – 3 lbs/acre (2.2 – 3.4 kg/ha) of 20% B spray product This vineyard was fertilized with a boron product. It didn’t need it and as a result the grower ended up with boron toxicity. ...
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