ven118lecc13_(lepidopteraetc)

ven118lecc13_(lepidopteraetc) - VEN 118 VEN Omnivorous...

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Unformatted text preview: VEN 118 VEN Omnivorous Leafroller Omnivorous (OLR), Orange Tortrix (OT), Grape leaffolder (GLF), Grapeleaf Skeletonizer (WGLS), Cutworms, Grape Bud Beetle and Thrips Bud Simplified Life Cycle of Insects Nymph (Feeding stage) (Winged & Reproductive) Egg Larvae (Feeding stage) Adult → Pupa Within the feeding portion of the life cycle there are specific steps in the growth of the insect called ‘instars’. The exoskeleton is shed and growth continues. Seasonal population dynamics of Insects • Brood = All individuals that hatch at about the same time from eggs laid by one series of parents and normally mature about the same time • Generation = From any given stage in life cycle to the same stage in the offspring • Insects are poikilotherms = cold blooded • Life cycle length depends on temperature • The number of broods or generations at a given location will differ due to the temperature at that location Insect, Spider and other Pests of Grape to be Covered Leaf pests: a.) Grape leafhopper (Erythoneura elegantula) b.) Variegated leafhopper (Erythoneura variablis) c.) Sharpshooter leafhoppers (vector of PD) d.) Western grapeleaf skeletonizer e.) Grape leaffolder f.) Spider mites: Pacific Willamette Insect, Spider and other Pests of Grape to be Covered Fruit pests: a.) Omnivorous leafroller b.) Orange Tortrix c.) Mealybug d.) Thrips Bud or new growing shoot tip pests: a.) Cutworms b.) Grape bud beetles GRAPE LEAFFOLDER Desmia funeralis Desmia Grape Leaffolder Grape Adult moth Grape Leaffolder, Grape Egg Larva Prepupal stage of Prepupal grape leaffolder grape Pupa Pupa Leaf rolls made by larvae of the grape leaffolder Photo by Fredrik L. Jensen Grape leaffolder Damage Grape A grape leaf curled and tied together with grape silk by the larva of a grape leaffolder Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Leaf damage by larvae of grape leaffolder Leaf Heavy feeding damage by larvae of the grape leaffolder. leaffolder. Biological Control of Grape Leaffolder Biological An adult female wasp, Bracon cushmani, An Bracon parasitizing the larva of a grape leaffolder Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Eggs of a parasitic wasp, Bracon cushmani, Bracon laid externally on the larva of a grape leaffolder laid Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Larvae of a parasitic wasp, Bracon cushmani, Bracon feeding externally on the larva of a grape leaffolder feeding Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Pupal cocoons of a Pupal parasitic wasp, Bracon cushmani, Bracon next to the larva of a grape leaffolder killed by the parasite grape Chrysoperla carnea, green lacewing larva Chrysoperla Photos by Jack Kelly Clark Crab spider Crab (Thomisidae) attacking grape leaffolder larvae OMNIVOROUS LEAFROLLER LEAFROLLER Platynota stultana Omnivorous Leafroller (OLR) Adult moth Adult Photo by Jack Kelly Clark adult female moth on a grape Omnivorous leafroller Omnivorous Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Egg mass of the omnivorous leafroller on a leaf leafroller Photo by Jack Kelly Clark First-instar larvae of the omnivorous leafroller hatching from eggs leafroller Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Larva of the omnivorous leafroller folding a leaf by tying edges together with silk threads with Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Silken nests made by larvae of the omnivorous leafroller and their feeding damage on developing grape flowers damage Photo by Jack Kelly Clark The silken larval nest of The omnivorous leafroller on a young shoot Photo by Jack Kelly Clark The larva of an omnivorous leafroller in its silken webbing nest on young grape berries young Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Close-up of three distinguishing marks on the side of the thorax of a grape leaffolder larva, Desmia funeralis Desmia Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Third-instar larva of the omnivorous leafroller Third-instar Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Mature larva of omnivorous leafroller Mature Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Close-up of white tubercles on the larva of an omnivorous leafroller larva Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Larva of omnivorous leafroller overwintering in a grape cluster mummy in Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Omnivorous Omnivorous Leafroller Damage Damage Rotting and raisining (drying up) of Thompson seedless grapes following chewing damage by larvae of the omnivorous leafroller omnivorous Biological Control An adult braconid wasp parasite of omnivorous leafroller near the white pupal cocoon from which the parasite emerged which Chrysoperla carnea, green lacewing larva Chrysoperla Photos by Jack Kelly Clark An adult minute An pirate bug, Orius tristicolor Orius Crab spider from family Thomisidae Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Row plowing with a French plow controls weeds in the vine row and buries infested trash trash Photo by Jack Kelly Clark ORANGE TORTRIX ORANGE Argyrotaenia franciscana Argyrotaenia Orange Tortrix adults and Orange Tortrix an egg mass Orange Tortrix Damage Orange Orange tortrix larva feeding Orange on a developing bud on Photo by Jack Kelly Clark An orange tortrix larva An Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Orange tortrix larval feeding damage to berries and stems Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Larvae of the orange tortrix feeding in a grape cluster feeding Silken larval nest of the orange tortrix in a ripening grape cluster tortrix Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Orange Tortrix Biological control Crab spider from Crab family Thomisidae family An adult wasp parasite of caterpillars, Exochus sp Exochus Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Cultural Control Little mallow (cheeseweed), Malva parviflora Malva Mature curly dock Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Mustard, Brassica sp., grown as an overwinter cover crop in a grape vineyard Filaree, Erodium spp. Photos by Jack Kelly Clark WESTERN GRAPELEAF SKELETONIZER SKELETONIZER Harrisina brillians Mating male and female moths of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer western Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Eggs of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer (WGLS) skeletonizer Egg mass of the Egg WGLS WGLS First-instar larvae of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer (WGLS) grapeleaf Third-instar larvae Third-instar of the WGLS and their chewing damage chewing Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Fourth-instar larvae of the western grapeleaf skeletonizer feeding on a grape leaf grape Western Grapeleaf Skeletonizer: Western fifth-instar larvae Close-up of the head of a WGLS larva showing its poisonous, stinging hairs Western grapeleaf skeletonizer white pupal cocoons under the bark pupal Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Damage Damage Whitish spots on a grape leaf caused by Whitish the first-instar larvae of western grapeleaf skeletonizer after they hatched from each of three different masses of Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Pale, scraped surface of a grape leaf fed upon by larvae of western grapeleaf skeletonizer grapeleaf Brown leaves and sparse canopy of Brown a grapevine fed upon by larvae of western grapeleaf skeletonizer western Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Biological Control Biological Adult Apanteles harrisinae, a parasite Adult Apanteles wasp of western grapeleaf skeletonizer Adult Ametadoria misella, a tachinid Ametadoria fly parasite of western grapeleaf skeletonizer skeletonizer Western grapeleaf skeletonizer eggs scattered on a leaf because the female moth was infected by a granulosis virus moth Larvae of western grapeleaf skeletonizer feeding in a disoriented pattern because they are infected by a granulosis virus Photo by Max Badgley Larvae of western grapeleaf skeletonizer, shriveling and dying because they are infected by a granulosis virus granulosis CUTWORMS CUTWORMS Peridroma saucia, larva Peridroma Variegated cutworm, Variegated Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Variegated cutworm Variegated feeding on a bud feeding Photo by John E. Dibble Amathes c-nigrum, larva Amathes Spotted cutworm, Spotted Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Cutworms under bark Cutworms Cutworms Cutworms feed at night feed Photo by Jack Kelly Clark GRAPE BUD BEETLE GRAPE Glyptoscelis squamulata Glyptoscelis Grape bud beetle, Glyptoscelis squamulata, Glyptoscelis female and eggs on bark female Photo by M. Badgley First instar larvae on bark among clear egg cases from which the larvae emerged larvae Grape bud beetle Grape Photo by Vernon M. Stern Grape bud beetle emergence time Grape An opening grape bud damaged by the chewing of an adult grape bud beetle chewing Adults of the grape bud beetle Adults are colored a fluorescent silvery blue when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light as shown here here Photo by Vernon M. Stern THRIPS THRIPS Adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Frankliniella Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Grape Thrips Western Flower Thrips Generalized population trends of grape thrips on grapevine leaves. Peak populations generally occur mid-summer. mid-summer. Typical population trends for western flower thirps and periods when susceptible cultivars are prone to scarring and halo spots. when Little is known about natural control of thirps but the minute pirate bug may play a role in keeping populations in check. populations ...
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