ven118lecc15_(weedvegman)

ven118lecc15_(weedvegman) - VEN 118 Vegetation Management...

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Unformatted text preview: VEN 118 Vegetation Management Why manage vegetation? Improve crop growth, quality and yield Erosion control Water management (stress man.) Frost protection Pest management (weeds, gophers, voles, insects, etc.) Weed A weed is a plant growing out of place. Any time you use a plant for any purpose it is not considered a weed. Why control weeds? Why control weeds? Weeds compete for water and mineral nutrients (especially in new vineyards) Disrupt manually performed cultural practices Interfere with harvest and machinery Host to parasitic nematodes Harbor insect and vertebrate pests. Weed Types Broadleaves Grasses Important to know as herbicides can be used selectively to control or kill one type or the other. Characteristics of grasses Weed Types: Annuals Winter annuals group of plants that under lower light conditions, shorter days and the availability of water (such as rainfall) will germinate. This group is growing in the vineyard right now. They will grow through the winter and into the spring (warmer temperatures and longer days) when the plant matures and drops seeds. In vineyard agro-ecosystems, winter annuals are not a problem . Weed Types: Annuals Summer annuals group of plants that are just the opposite of winter annuals. They will germinate in the spring and grow during the summer, needing irrigation to grow. If there is no water, then there is no problem. They will mature in the fall, producing seed. It is this group that can be a problem in vineyards. Weed Types: Biennial Biennials group of plants in which two seasons are needed for the period from seed germination to seed formation. The first season of growth ends with the formation of a root , a short stem and a rosette of leaves near the soil surface. In the second growing season, flowering, fruiting, seed production and death occur. Weed Types: Perennial Perennials group of plants in which the vegetative structures live year after year. These types of weeds are the most difficult to control in vineyards as you will have both seed production and vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation is derived from stolons (a stem that grows horizontally along the ground surface and may form adventitious roots) and rhizomes (a more or less underground stem that can give rise to aerial shoots). Winter annual weeds: Yellow star thistle Fillarees Cheese weed (malva) Sow thistle Yellow star thistle, Yellow star thistle, Centaurea solstitialis Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Seedling Flower Mature plant Whitestem filaree, Whitestem filaree, Erodium moschatum Erodium moschatum Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Seedling Leaf, flower, and seed pods Leaves of whitestem are toothed (left) and leaves or redstem filaree are dissected (right). Little mallow (cheeseweed), Little mallow (cheeseweed), Malva parviflora Malva parviflora Seedling Fruit Flowers Tap root Photos by Jack Kelly Clark Annual sowthistle, Annual sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Seedling Mature plant Mature Flower Summer annual weeds: Puncture vine Russian thistle Fleabane Horseweed Turkey Mullein Flower...
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course VEN 81437 taught by Professor Larrywilliams during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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ven118lecc15_(weedvegman) - VEN 118 Vegetation Management...

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