Department of Viticulture and Enology
WINE TECHNOLOGY AND WINERY SYSTEMS
2. SANITARY DESIGN
The idea of “sanitary design” is common in the food and beverage industry, as
well as the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries.
While the level and
implementation may vary among industries, the general idea remains the same.
sanitary design, equipment and systems are designed to be “cleanable,” so that dirt and
potential contaminants will not be harbored or released by the equipment into the
intermediate or final product.
For the wine industry, the idea of sanitary design is important for two main
First, we want to be able to control what organisms grow in the product during
fermentation and after fermentation (for stability).
Even in the case of “uninoculated” or
“natural” fermentations, we want to be able to control the appearance or accumulation of
“undesirable” organisms that may enter the winery environment.
Second, we do not
want to introduce other contaminants into the process stream that will affect the ease of
downstream processing or final product quality.
Examples of this type of contaminant to
be avoided would be large clumps of dirt or organisms that break away from the
equipment after initial entrapment, paint chips, small pieces of rubber, grease, or rust.
The two main means of accomplishing sanitary design in a winery setting are by
choice of “materials of construction” and by design of fittings, equipment, and piping
These are the topics that we will focus on for this lecture.
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
The characteristics of a “good” material for sanitary design are that they are
cleanable, corrosion-resistant, and contain no “leachables.”
Materials that fit these
characteristics include glass and stainless steel, as well as various polymer materials such
Other types of materials might also be suitable, but would
depend on the application.
If materials get irreversibly stained, they may be too porous
for sanitary use.
Material like oak would most likely not fit into the definition of a
This does NOT, however, mean that these materials can not be used
It simply means that special handling or cleaning regimens may have to
be incorporated into normal processing, or equipment with these materials may have to
be treated as a consumable.