Lecture+6.++Crushers - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Department...

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Department of Viticulture and Enology VEN 135 WINE TECHNOLOGY AND WINERY SYSTEMS 6. HARVESTING AND JUICE/MUST PREPARATION HARVEST DECISIONS One of the main decisions that need to be made (other than the timing of harvest) is whether to hand pick or machine harvest the fruit. Hand picking is generally associated with high quality wine production in some wine-producing regions around the world. It results in less fruit damage and reduces skin contact between skin and juice (that inevitably forms with machine harvesting) during transport. Hand picking, using a trained crew, allows sorting during picking and again after delivery to the winery. On the other hand, machine harvesting is less labor-intensive. In addition, machine harvesting allows more control over harvest timing because it precludes a reliance on the availability of picking crews, especially when weather patterns force many wineries to pick at nearly the same time. Machine harvesting sometimes leaves mold-infected fruit on the vine as well, thus automating part of the sorting process. Another decision that needs to be made, especially when designing a crush pad, is the size of the picking bin that will be used. Commercially, 30 lb picking bins and ½ ton bins are most common for small to medium-sized wineries while gondolas that each hold 6-7 tons are common for large wineries. This choice especially affects the fruit staging and unloading area and initial conveyance systems. The timing of picking greatly affects fruit temperature. Picking at night or early morning can result in fruit that is 30-40 ° F cooler than fruit picked in the afternoon. As we will see later in the course when we discuss refrigeration, must chilling is one of, if the not the largest, draws for refrigeration systems in a winery. By picking while fruit is cool, we can save energy and purchase a smaller refrigeration system. Finally, picking fruit at locations remote to your winery presents several extra challenges over estate fruit. These include increased skin contact during transport, increased oxidation, and fewer opportunities to return skins and stems to the vineyard. Therefore, sometimes it will make sense, when the grapes are remote, to crush and/or press remotely and transport the resulting juice or must back to the winery. RECEIVING AND SORTING When grapes arrive at the winery in bins, they are typically dumped into hoppers that feed the first unit operation, which could be a crusher/destemmer or press. This means that hoppers must be equipped with a means of moving the fruit. There are two common means of moving the fruit. The most common method currently is to use either a horizontal or inclined helical screw (as seen in Figure 6.1). This type of equipment 1
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generally works well although some berry breakage is expected due to the shear force generated at the edge of the screw. Perhaps a gentler means of transporting grapes is by use of conveyor belts. A belt system (as seen in Figure 6.2) can transport
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Lecture+6.++Crushers - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Department...

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