Lecture+19.++Waste+Water+Treatment - UNIVERSITY OF...

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Department of Viticulture and Enology VEN 135 WINE TECHNOLOGY AND WINERY SYSTEMS 19. WASTE WATER TREATMENT The use and availability of water for equipment cleaning is rapidly becoming a limiting factor in the operation of many wineries and in the development of new wineries. Traditionally winemakers have had to know little about water use and wastewater treatment but they are at the center of the issue since they are responsible for the instructions for cleaning and the chemicals and volumes to be used. It is the use of these materials that will determine the extent and expense of the wastewater treatment. Today, winemakers need to understand the treatment implications of their choices of cleaning compounds and contacting times. To do this they will need to understand both the mechanism and killing kinetics of the agents used, the chemical compatibility of these with the stainless steel, oak wood, rubber or plastic of tanks, barrels and hoses, the workplace safety of their use and the biological oxygen demands of these products during water treatment. The main concerns in the discharge of process water into streams or onto soils that will feed into streams are: 1) the consumption of oxygen when components are degraded microbiologically 2) the consumption of oxygen when components are degraded chemically 3) the toxicity, mutagenicity or carcinogenicity of the components The consumption of oxygen by aerobic metabolism leads to anaerobic conditions which will cause the death of most aquatic life and the development of smelly and putrid volatiles from anaerobic metabolism. The “biochemical (or biological) oxygen demand” or BOD, is the main measure of this property of wastewater streams, and the main regulated property of waters to be discharged into streams. In order to minimize this impact, wastewater is usually treated in microbial reactors, to perform the degradation under more ideal conditions, thereby lower the levels to established standards before discharge. The design and operation of such reactors will depend on the chemical composition of the waste stream and this depends on the winery cleaning and washing practices. The standards that need to be met in discharged streams are usually established by the corresponding water district or water quality control board. These district authorities often spread beyond county borders since they cover rainfall watersheds, water basins, creeks and rivers. For example in Napa Valley the main agency is the Bay Area Water Quality Control Board, while in Sonoma is will vary depending on where the winery is located and which river or regional authority has the jurisdiction. There are more general, but also more comprehensive standards set by the federal EPA.
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Figure 19.1. Sources and nature of wastewater in winemaking. Components of winemaking are listed across the top of the table and winery operations are listed down the side. From Storm. SOURCE AND NATURE OF WINE PROCESSING WASTE
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Lecture+19.++Waste+Water+Treatment - UNIVERSITY OF...

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