03-04-06-10-GUSTATION_OLFACTION

03-04-06-10-GUSTATION_OLFACTION - Taste=Taste Smell...

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1 Olfaction and Gustation Smell and Taste Ven 125 Hildegarde Heymann “Taste” = Taste + Smell “ Taste” an interaction between our chemical senses Flavor •F lavo r = Aroma + Taste + Oral Sensations r is the psychological interpretation of the physiology response to physical stimuli Taste ive “basic” tastes osweet , sour, bitter, salty, umami o Mediated by taste receptor cells in taste buds • Other oral Sensations: o astringency o burn/irritation o Temperature o Mediated by free nerve endings etc. . Final "barrier" function intimate contact least complicated stimulation to perception time is very short Taste: 1.5–4.0 msec Touch 2.4–8.9 msec Vision: 13–45 msec Hearing: 13–22 msec Papillae Circumvallate papillae Filliform Papillae Foliate Papillae Fungiform papillae
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2 Taste Buds Figure 15.1 Size of oral cavity varies Male: normal mouthful 30.5 ± 10.1 g water Female: normal mouthful 25.2±8.1 g water Assume water fills entire void space of mouth Decrease with solid foods Males: 18+/ 4.9 g banana; female: 13.1±4.0g Males: 5.5+/ 2.3 g peanut bites; female: 3.6±1.4g (Chen 2009 Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1 25) Hänig’s 1901dissertation and the tongue map – a story about primary resources Bartoshuk, L.M. (1993). The biological basis of food perception and acceptance. Food Quality and Preference , 4, 21-32 Physiology of Taste •In order to be tasted, a chemical: •must be dissolved [in saliva] •Amount of saliva is related to size of glands (MRI) •must contact gustatory receptors Gustatory Pathway •C r a n i a l Nerves VII & IX carry impulses to solitary nucleus of medulla These impulses then travel to thalamus, and then fibers branch to : • Gustatory cortex (taste) •H y p o t h a l am u s and limbic system (appreciation of taste) Taste sensitivity present before birth • Saccharin in amniotic fluid of near term fetus leads to increased swallowing •Newbo rn s prefer sweet solutions to plain water ‐‐ suck longer with fewer pauses •Bab ie s make different facial expressions when given sweet, sour, bitter (Rosenstein and Oster) • Neonates respond positively to umami (soup with and without MSG) •Sa l t detection develops post natally (at ± 4 months)
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3 Pure and Applied Chemistry 49(721-727) Infant Taste Responses sweet bitter sour Mixture suppression • Suppression defined: •Tastes are weaker in mixtures than they are in equimolar unmixed solutions; • Mixtures are less intense than the sum of their Mixtures are less intense than the sum of their components. •E x cep t ion s : •Low [NaCl] enhances sweetness of sucrose •MSG & IMP enhance many flavors in mixtures •Many sweeteners act synergistically •aspartame (Equal) & acesulfame K (Sunett) Taste modifiers •G ym n em a sylvestre (India): inhibits sweet •S y n s e p a l um dulcificum (miracle fruit): sour to sweet Artichoke compounds: can make water taste sweet.
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03-04-06-10-GUSTATION_OLFACTION - Taste=Taste Smell...

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