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Unformatted text preview: sensory stimuli, such as color, flavor, texture, and appearance. Techniques have been developed to facilitate an understanding of consumer hedonic responses in terms of objective measurements. These techniques avoid the need to interpret consumer language. In practice, products are analyzed for chemical, flavor, and sensory profiles using analytical techniques, including sensory analysis, in addition to consumer hedonic responses. By correlating Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 58:2 (2007) 2 56 – Lesschaeve these sets of objective measurements with consumer liking scores, the objective parameters (alone or in combination) that drive consumer likes and/or dislikes can be identified; furthermore, the optimal product formulation for a particular consumer segment can be determined. Preference mapping is one of these techniques (Greenhoff and MacFie 1994) that can be used to explore relationships between competitive products in a given category and to group consumers who have similar liking patterns. This technique has been used to study consumer preferences and to identify opportunities where no products exist. The development of a new product based on preference map data is known as “reverse engineering” (Moskowitz 1994). Once a developer has identified an area on a preference map to position a new product maximizing consumer liking scores, it is a straightforward process to determine the optimal sensory profile of the new product by modeling each sensory attribute by a quadratic function of the liking score. This approach has been used for new wine style development (Lesschaeve and Findlay 2004) and other products (Moskowitz 1994). Other modeling techniques used in the food industry include partial least squares (Martens and Martens 1986) PrefMap (McEwan 1996), and PrefMaX (Schlich et al. 2003). While preference mapping and reverse engineering allow researchers to identify and target sensory preferences of wine consumers, the success of a new product on the market depends up...
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