comm 322 final exam study guide

comm 322 final exam study guide - Communication 322 Final...

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Chapter 6: I. Be able to recognize the five types of reasoning II. Be able to employ the tests of the five types of reasoning to determine if the reasoning is sound or fallacious. Inductive Reasoning : Arguing from specific cases to more general conclusions. When you are faced with a situation where you have knowledge or information about a number of specific cases, but you lack an understanding of the factors that might unite those cases into a general theory or principle, you can utilize the inductive reasoning process to seek conclusions. A. Argument by example: Examines one or more cases within a specific class and reasons that if these cases have certain common features. a. Arguments from examples to a generalization that move too quickly or without sufficient rationale may be labeled a hasty generalization . A hasty generalization is a logical fallacy. A fallacy is a flaw in the reasoning process. b. Several tests of these arguments can and should be applied other, as yet unknown cases in that class will also have these features. 1. First, are there a significant number of examples offered to support the claim? Do not generalize. (Ex: Susan Jones, Ann Harper are members of the Delta Delta Delta sorority, and they are all on the dean’s list. Tri-Delts are good students). 2. Second, are the examples cited typical of the category of class that the arguer is trying to generalize to? (Ex: The last time I tried to get help from the Advising Office I got passed around from one person to another. No one knew the answers to my questions. That department is incompetent). Because one individual asked questions that the staff members of the Advising Office were unable to answer does not necessarily suggest that this office is typically unable to answer students’ questions. 3. Third, are negative examples or rival stories sufficiently accounted for in the argument? (Ex: My friends Bill, Dianne, and Lynn were communication majors and they got into really good law schools. Communication must be a good pre-law major). There are certainly many other communication majors who probably failed to gain admission to any law schools during that same admission cycle. Students majoring in other academic disciplines were also applying for admission to law school. 4. Fourth, are the cited examples relevant to the claim being advanced? (Ex: When the standards for the disposal of hazardous waste in the United States become more stringent, or when the government increases the regulations to improve worker safety, American companies will ship the hazardous waste overseas or build their manufacturing plants in places that are not so well regulated. American corporations don’t care about worker safety or the
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comm 322 final exam study guide - Communication 322 Final...

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