Lecture 20100909

Lecture 20100909 - Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected...

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1 Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected that you understand the following basic terms and concepts prior to this lecture. From chapter 26 •p r o k a r y o t e • cell wall • membrane-enclosed organelle • nucleus • cytoskeleton • Photosynthesis From pg. 92 • ATP & cellular respiration From Robert May essay • taxon/taxa 2 Lecture 3 Diversity of life and prokaryotes 9 September 2009 BIOL 111 – Organismal Biology
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3 Lecture outline • Diversity of life – What is diversity? – How is diversity measured? – Which groups show the greatest diversity? • Prokaryotes – prokaryotes vs eukaryotes – cell structure & morphology – 3 challenges of life 4 What is diversity? • Diversity of life • Biodiversity • Species diversity
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Main factors that control diversity •A rea – In general doubling area increases diversity by 10-25% • Climate – Warm, wet areas have more species – But we don’t know exactly why 6 Plant Vertebrate Invertebrate Micro-organism Fossil Other Distribution of taxonomists among broad taxonomical groups in Australia, USA & UK
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Other measures of diversity • So far we have focused on number of species (=numeric diversity) • There are other measures • Genetic diversity = measure of genetic distance (=evolutionary separation) • Functional diversity = differences in shape, size, and generally ways of making a living (types of food, places lived, etc) Summary on diversity of life • There are about 7-10 million extant species • ~99% of Earth’s species are extinct • Diversity is greatest near the equator on large landmasses with good climates • Taxonomists have quantified animals/insects/beetles as most diverse • Other measures of diversity – Functional: bacteria most diverse – Genetic/evolutionary: bacteria • Humans are biased to vertebrates & plants!
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Lecture 20100909 - Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected...

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