Lecture 20100914

Lecture 20100914 - It is expected that you understand the...

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1 Pre-lecture vocabulary It is expected that you understand the following basic terms and concepts prior to this lecture. From chapter 22 • taxon/taxa • taxonomy • phylogeny From chapter 27 • mitosis • meiosis • haploid • diploid 2 Lecture 4 Phylogeny, origin & diversity of eukaryotes 14 September 2010 BIOL 111 – Organismal Biology
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3 Phylogeny, origin and diversity of eukaryotes lecture outline 2. Origin of eukaryotes 3. Diversity of “protists” 4 ~1.7 million species – how to organize? Taxonomy • Two key ideas – Binomial nomenclature • Genus species • e.g., Homo sapiens •A l so :Homo sapiens , H. sapiens –H ie ra rchy Carolus Linnaeus 1758, Sweden Sand sapiens Species Grained Homo Genus Finely Hominidae Family On Primate Order Chess Mammalia Class
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5 Taxa have changed over time with discovery of new groups and techniques. Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Plantae Plantae Plantae Fungi Fungi Plantae Vegetabilia Eukarya Protista Protista Protista Eukaryota Archaea Archae- bacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Monera Monera Prokaryota Protista (not treated) Woese 1990 3 domains Woese 1977 6 kingdoms Whittaker 1969 5 kingdoms Copeland 1956 4 kingdoms Chatton 1937 2 empires Haeckel 1866 3 kingdoms Linnaeus 1735 2 kingdoms 6 How to read a phylogenetic tree (Part 1) Common ancestor Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee
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7 How to read a phylogenetic tree (Part 2) Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee Orangutan Human Gorilla Chimpanzee 8 Analogy vs. homology Bat wing Bird wing Insect wing Homology • similarity due to common ancestor Analogy • similarity due to common environment convergent evolution
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9 Which is a monophyletic group? = ancestor + all descendents B A C D E F G H I J 10 How to build a phylogeny • Step 1 – get a list of “traits” or “characters” for each taxon • Step 2 (optional) – identify order of progression on traits (jaw came after no jaw) and traits that show “homology” • Step 3 – let a computer find groupings
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11 derived trait – trait shared by the group but not found in their ancestor 12 The result Ingroup Lungs Chimpanzee Mouse Lamprey (outgroup) Perch Salamander Lizard Crocodile Pigeon Fur; mammary glands Gizzard Feathers Continuously growing incisors Keratinous scales Claws or nails Jaws Common ancestor
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13 Taxonomy and Phylogeny summary • As we learn more, ideas about taxonomy have changed, but we still use the binomial nomenclature system • Phylogenies are based on evolutionary history and strive to form monophyletic
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Lecture 20100914 - It is expected that you understand the...

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