Key Study Points for Petrucci et al., Chapters 8 and 9

Key Study Points for Petrucci et al., Chapters 8 and 9 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Key Study Points for Petrucci et al., Key Study Points for Petrucci et al., Chapters 8 & 9 Chapters 8 & 9 Chemistry 110 Fall 2010 Note : Fundamental constants and a periodic table will be provided on the midterm but equations will not be given. SI Units SI Units Secondary Units written in terms of Primary SI Units SI Units Common SI Prefixes Chemical Symbols Chemical Symbols One or Two Letter Abbreviations Carbon: C Oxygen: O Nickel: Ni Gold: Au E A Z E = Chemical Symbol Z = Atomic No. = p A = Mass Number = p + n = Charge = p - e Quantum Theory Quantum Theory Rayleigh-Jeans Law for Blackbody ( ) e Temperatur Absolute T Constant s Boltzmann' k Density Energy kT 8 4 = = = = You do not have to know this equation for calculations but you should know that the classical theory predicts an inverse relationship between Energy Density and Wavelength i.e. & proportional to 4 Ultraviolet catastropheenergy density goes to infinity as wavelength gets smallerA failure of the classical theory Some Important Equations Some Important Equations & c = light of speed c Js 10 x 6.626 h Constant s Planck' h h & E 34- = = = = & u = EM Radiation Any wave u = wave velocity = frequency = wavelength Some Important Equations Some Important Equations u m KE 2 e 2 1 electron =- e the removing for eshold energy thr the metal for the function" work " = electron the of mass m e = electron the of velocity u = = =- h & h &- h & KE o electron Photoelectric Effect = Frequency of the light that is directed on the metal surface = Threshold frequency for the metal Photoelectric Effect The photons of a light beam have a characteristic energy determined by the frequency of the light (E = h & ). In the photoelectric effect, if an electron absorbs the energy of one photon and has more energy than the work function (E = h & ), it is ejected from the material. If the photon energy is too low, the electron is unable to escape the surface of the material. Increasing the intensity of the light beam when E > h & increases the number of photons in the light beam, and thus increases the number of electrons emitted without increasing the energy that each electron possesses. The energy of the emitted electrons does not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but only on the energy of the individual photons. Electrons can absorb energy from photons when irradiated, but they follow an "all or nothing" principle. All of the energy from one photon must be absorbed and used to liberate one electron from atomic binding, or the energy is re-emitted. If the photon energy is absorbed, some of the energy liberates the electron from the atom, and the rest contributes to the electron's kinetic energy as a free particle....
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Key Study Points for Petrucci et al., Chapters 8 and 9 -...

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