Lect16 - Lecture 16 Metabolism of Fatty Acids 1 Pentose...

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1 Lecture 16 Metabolism of Fatty Acids
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http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/map/map01100.html Citric acid cycle Glycolysis/ Gluconeogenesis Oxidative phosphorylation Carbon fixation Glycan metabolism Fatty acid metabolism Pentose Phosphate metabolism
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3 What are fats? Triacyl glycerols Just from macrophages alone there are estimated ~10-20,000 different lipids that have been identified.
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4 Fuel molecules, stored as triacylglycerols Building blocks of phospholipids and glycolipids Covalent attachment of fatty acids to proteins – target to membrane Fatty acid derivatives serve as hormones and intra and inter cellular messengers Physiological roles of fatty acids
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5 More reduced than carbohydrates and proteins complete oxidization of fatty acids ~ 38 kJ/gram carbohydrates ~ 17kJ/gram Triacylglycerols are hydrophobic - anhydrous same energy stored in 11 kg triacylglycerols = 75 kg glycogen • In mammals, triacylglycerols stored in adipose (fat) cells Triacylglycerols are highly condensed energy stores
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6 Triacyl glycerols broken down (lipases) ! Free fatty acids and 1,2- diacylglycerols or 2-acylglycerols Absorbed by small intestine ! Bound by intestinal fatty acid- binding protein Converted back to triacyl glycerol ! Packaged into lipoprotein particles = chylomicrons Chylomicrons eventually find their way to the blood stream Liver also produces other kinds of lipoprotein particles Dietary Fats: What happens when you eat them?
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7 Lipid digestion and absorption ! Triacylglycerol lipase catalyzes hydrolysis of triacylglycerol -> produce mono- or diacylglycerols ! Lipase is secreted by the pancreas ! Lipase acts at the water-lipid interface (interfacial activation) ! Absorption aided by bile acids
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8 Fatty Acids are hydrophobic so how are they absorbed? Bile acids (salts) — amphipathic (wrap around fats) ! Cholesterol derivatives synthesized by liver ! Stored in gallbladder ! Secreted into small intestine for absorption ! Also for absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) Solubilization of Fats
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9 Triacyl glycerols broken down (lipases) ! Free fatty acids and 1,2- diacylglycerols or 2-acylglycerols Absorbed by small intestine ! Bound by intestinal fatty acid- binding protein Converted back to triacyl glycerol ! Packaged into lipoprotein particles = chylomicrons Chylomicrons eventually find their way to the blood stream Liver also produces other kinds of lipoprotein particles Dietary Fats: What happens when you eat them?
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10 Intestinal fatty acid binding protein ! Increase solubility ! Protect cells from their detergent-like effects
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11 Triacyl glycerols broken down (lipases) ! Free fatty acids and 1,2- diacylglycerols or 2-acylglycerols Absorbed by small intestine ! Bound by intestinal fatty acid- binding protein Converted back to triacyl glycerol ! Packaged into lipoprotein particles = chylomicrons Chylomicrons eventually find their way to the blood stream Liver also produces other kinds of lipoprotein particles Dietary Fats: What happens when you eat them?
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course ECON 100A taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at Alabama.

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Lect16 - Lecture 16 Metabolism of Fatty Acids 1 Pentose...

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