Chapter 2 - Chapter Outline - Atoms and Molecules ~ The Chemical Basis of Life

Chapter 2 - Chapter Outline - Atoms and Molecules ~ The Chemical Basis of Life

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Purav Patel Chapter 2 AP Biology Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of Life Introduction Many plants, animals, and microorganisms share chemical similarities in their chemical composition and basic metabolic processes. The success of the Human Genome Project relied on biochemistry and… Molecular Biology - the chemistry and physics of the molecules of living things Biochemists may study how a cell’s atoms and molecules maintain essential energy flow, while a molecular biologist may study how proteins interact with DNA. The structure of atoms determines how they form chemical bonds to produce complex compounds. Inorganic Compounds - small, simple chemical compounds Examples: Some examples are water, simple acids and bases, and simple salts. Organic Compounds – large, complex carbon-containing compounds Extra: Two or more carbon atoms are bonded to each other, forming a backbone. Elements Elements - substances indivisible by ordinary chemical reactions Chemical Symbol – a letter or group of letters (in English or Latin) indicating an element 96% of the mass of most organisms arises from oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium are present too, but in smaller quantities. Iodine and copper are called trace elements, because they’re found only in minute amounts. Atom - smallest portion of an element retaining its chemical properties A scanning tunneling microscope is needed to see large atoms in molecules. Subatomic Particles, their Charges, and the Atomic Nucleus: 1. Electron - subatomic particle with a negative electrical charge 2. Proton - subatomic particle with a positive electrical charge 3. Neutron – subatomic particle with no (neutral) electrical charge 4. Atomic Nucleus - dense nucleus composed of tightly bound protons and neutrons 1
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Purav Patel Chapter 2 AP Biology Protons and neutrons have subatomic particles composing them. An Atoms is uniquely Identified by Its Number of Protons Atomic Number – fixed number of protons for an element (determines atoms’ identities) Example: Thus, 1 H indicates 1 proton in a hydrogen nucleus. Periodic Table - chart of elements arranged in alphabetical order Electron Configurations - arrangement of electrons around an atom; shown by concentric circles Bohr models show electrons conveniently, but inaccurately arranged in concentric circles. Contrary to what the Bohr model depicts, electrons don’t circle the nucleus in circular, fixed paths. Rather, they orbit at high velocities in random motions. Protons plus Neutrons Determine Atomic Mass To express the minute mass of atoms, atomic mass units, or Daltons are used. One amu equals about the sum of the mass of a proton and a neutron. The mass of an electron is about 1/1800 the mass of a proton or neutron. Atomic Mass - number indicating the amount of matter in an atom compared to another atom
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2010 for the course BIO 1 taught by Professor Na during the Fall '10 term at Temple.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter Outline - Atoms and Molecules ~ The Chemical Basis of Life

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