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# chapter2notes - (CHAPTER TWO BITS DATA TYPES AND OPERATIONS...

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(CHAPTER TWO) BITS, DATA TYPES, AND OPERATIONS WHAT TO DO FOR HOMEWORK (SEPTEMBER 3): - problem set 1 due next Friday - starting chapter two today (9/2) - look up Athlon 64/AMD K8 on google (read about electronic characteristics, power, memory, etc) WHAT TO DO FOR HOMEWORK (SEPTEMBER 7): - problem set 1 due Friday - problem set 2 assigned Thursday - read chapter 3 CAREFULLY WHAT TO DO FOR HOMEWORK (SEPTEMBER 9): - problem set 1 due Friday - problem set 2 assigned tomorrow A) athlon 64 - word size: 64 bit - # transistors on board: 122 million - cpu speed: 3.4 gigahertz - power consumption: 89 à went down to 45 watts - ic wafer technology: PARTS OF A COMPUTER A) data types - numeric - certain basic data types are supposed by an isa/cpu(representation and operations

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within the computer) - we need to find a way to represent numeric data in a form thatis mutally comprehensible by human and computer B) computer word size - every computer has a natural word size – ie. The number of bits to represent a basic integer value (it is usually 8, 16, 32, 0r 64 bits à 1, 2, 4, 8 bytes) BITS AND DATA TYPES: A) the bit as the unit of information: - presence of voltage is “1” ON and absence is “0” OFF and each “1” or “0” is a bit - when it says “presence” and “absence,” the computer only really rounds the voltage number. Thus, “0” doesn’t meant that there’s absolutely no voltage - it’s more efficient to just have presence and absence (on or off) because otherwise you would need even more complicated circuits to recognize certain voltage strengths - ex: instead of testing all the outlets in your room for specific voltage levels, it’s better to just know if there is a presence of voltage or absence of voltage. In other words, it’s more efficient to lower the answer possibilities - basic unit of information is the binary digit, or bit. It is either “1” or “0” - two bit operations have 4 options: 00, 01, 10, and 11 - the voltages are represented by “1” and “0” only because the voltages must take into consideration the percent error caused by the vibrations B) data types: - floating points, decimals, binary, etc. you know this stuff already - numbers, text (characters, strings à ex. word processor), images (pixels, colors, shapes, sound, logical (true or false), instructions, etc. - data types are representations and operations within the computer A) data types - numeric - certain basic data types are supposed by an isa/cpu(representation and operations within the computer)_ - we need to find a way to represent numeric data in a form thatis mutally comprehensible by human and computer
INTEGER DATA TYPES: A) unsigned integers: - represented as strings of binary digits (positional notation) - ex: weighted positional notation example: the 3 in 329 stands for 300 because it’s in the third to

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chapter2notes - (CHAPTER TWO BITS DATA TYPES AND OPERATIONS...

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