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Unformatted text preview: Microbial Metabolism
0. Metabolism sum of all chemical (anabolic/catabolic) reactions in a living organism Metabolism 0. _____________ reactions that require energy to synthesize complex molecules from simple 1. _____________ reactions that release energy by breaking complex molecules to simple 1. Metabolic pathways are carried out by _____________
2. 3. 4. 5. Enzymes _________ macromolecules active site on enzymes specific for substrate ____________ in reactions work under optimal environmental conditions for the organism 6. lower the activation energy for a reaction to proceed 7. enzyme names often end in ____ 2. _____________ act within the cell 3. _____________ Types of Enzymes 4. cofactor ion or an organic molecule called a coenzyme 0. Assist the enzyme by accepting/donating atoms 8. cross cell membrane to work in periplasmic space 9. OR outside the cell in the environment Enzymes Enzymes & Energy of Activation Enzymes Control of Enzyme Activity
5. 6. 7. Concentration of substrate 8. Inhibitors 9. Feedback inhibition 10. Product made inhibits reaction Product made 10.___________ unique type of RNA 11.Function as reaction catalysts 12.Have active sites 13.Not used up in reactions 14.Specifically act upon ___
11. NOT a protein! Feedback Inhibition Ribozymes 0. _____________ use carbon dioxide as carbon source to make organic molecules 0. photoautotrophs obtain energy from light 1. chemoautotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing simple inorganic substances such as sulfides & nitrites Energy Usage Classifications 12. Remove sections and splice remaining pieces 1. _____________ use organic molecules that are already made as carbon source 2. photoheterotrophs obtain chem. E from light 3. chemoheterotrophs obtain chemical energy from organic compounds 15.Most microbes (including all human pathogens) are _____________ Chemoheterotrophs 13. use readymade organic molecules for carbon source & break down these molecules for an energy source 16.________________ uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor 17.________________ does not use oxygen as its All Microorganisms (life) Types of Energy Production FEA 18._____________ uses organic compounds as its FEA
14. can occur in the presence or absence of oxygen Uncontrollable muscle spasms Drooling, sweating Vaccine Untreated ____% mortality Passive immunization with immunoglobulin against tetanospasm (a toxin) Caused by _________________, a bacterium Common in soil and digestive tracts of animals/humans 19._____________ Aerobic Respiration 20._____________ 21._____________ 15. pathway used by most microbes to begin breakdown of glucose 16. this pathway does not require O2, but can occur either in presence or absence of O2 22.Yields a total of _____ ATP molecules Glycolysis 2. ___________ energy harvesting process of life 23.Two phases
17. Energy investment 2 ATP 18. Energy output 4 ATP 24.Conversion of glucose to pyruvate 19. release 2 ATP and 2 NADH 20. 10 enzymes are involved 4. it is an _____________ metabolic process
0. No oxygen used! 25.Sometimes called the citric acid cycle 26.2 ATP molecules produced Krebs Cycle 27. e are received by enzymes in the bacterial _____________ & transferred down a chain of enzymes 28. this is analogous to _____________ in eukaryotic cells 3. _____________ fermentation Electron Transport Fermentation 0. pyruvic acid lactic acid (no CO2) pyruvic acid 1. natural flora of human digestive, urogenital tracts; 2. bacteria of a sexually active woman's vaginal tract, keeps pH low to inhibit growth of other organisms 4. _____________ fermentation 3. important organisms for _____________ production 4. pyruvic acid ethanol (carbon dioxide produced) pyruvic acid 5. rare in bacteria, common in yeasts 6. baker's yeast, makes wine and beer 29. Photosynthesis 30.Light energy is captured by pigments in membranes
22. _____________ prokaryotes 23. _____________ eukaryotes 21. CO2 + H2O + light energy glucose O + light energy 5. Lipid metabolism extracellular _________ break down Metabolism of Fats & Proteins lipids into fatty acids and glycerol which then enter the cell and eventually enter the Krebs cycle 6. Protein metabolism extracellular _________ and ___________ break down proteins into amino acids and eventually enter the Krebs cycle ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course MIC 205 taught by Professor Wash during the Spring '08 term at ASU.
- Spring '08