PSY_Unit_2 - PERCEPTION \u25cf Empiricists vs Nativists \u25cb Empiricists kids are born knowing nothing and what they come to learn is due to experience \u25a0

PSY_Unit_2 - PERCEPTION ● Empiricists vs Nativists ○...

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PERCEPTION Empiricists vs. Nativists Empiricists: kids are born knowing nothing and what they come to learn is due to experience. Blank slate Nativists: you come into the world with some knowledge, you have an innate understanding of things. Habituation: if you are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, you stop responding to it. Preferential looking: child detects difference of picture because eyes follow one picture more than the other Differentiation theory Vision: Little kids detect differences in brightness Visual acuity-perceiving details: Newborns vision range around 20/600 vision, AKA lots of objects are blurry unless they are close. Blurry because limitation is ability to visually accommodate. By 6-12 months visibility is good Contour Schemata: Kids have visual representation of the objects in their world to the point where they can recognize familiar things such as parents' faces. Kids seem to show a bias for pattern where most of the information is in the upper part of the visual field. Gestalt psychology: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. We have a tendency to group things so it's easier to understand. Size Constancy: Kids are beginning to learn that object is the same size despite its distance from their eyes. Visual depth perception is in play. Have experience, but no feedback. Visual Cliff Sound: Infants startled by loud sound Newborns can hear better than they can see. Perceiving Speech: Phonemes: Speech sounds. By 3 months, they can recognize phonemes. Taste and Smell: Different facial expressions for different tastes/smells Touch, Temperature, and Pain Habituation: By 5 Months babies show habituation to item they have held/touch and can distinguish them Cross-modal Perception: Can identify something through one sense that you learned about through a different sense. **All sense are function from the beginning. Normal perceptual development requires in normal perceptual experience: Overtime you learn to selectively focus
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LEARNING TO READ Kids are learning that pictures and letters represent words/sound and they learn to decode letters to learn to read. 3 Stage Process Equate storytelling w/ reading Recognize squiggles on page represent words Decode letters and sound out words Phonological Awareness Phonemes Dyslexia: varied disabilities ADULT PERCEPTION Sensory thresholds change: How much must you be exposed to in order to detect it Dark adaption: Eyes adjusting to different lighting Cataracts COGNITIVE & LANGUAGE Piaget is important because he is the first attempt to try to explain the changes that unfold as we age. Piaget and the clinical method: More or less a question/answer strategy. Presenting problems/challenges for kids to answer. He wanted to know how kids thought about the challenges they are confronted with. Wanted to know how its different in 5 y/o vs 8 y/o etc.
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  • Test, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

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