Notes on Chapter 21 - Electromagnetism Optics PHYS241 Section 01 Name Dr Kofi Agyeman Room 2105 Email [email protected] Textbook Fundamentals of

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Electromagnetism & Optics PHYS241 Section 01 1 Textbook: Fundamentals of Physics , 8 th Edition, by Halliday, Resnick and Walker Name: Dr. Kofi Agyeman Room: 2105 [email protected] Email:
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2 Chapter 21: Electric Charge 21-1 1. Computers, TV, radio, telecommunications, lighting, etc,…. . 2. Atoms, molecules, lightning, auroras etc,…………. 3. Electromagnetism is a study of the combination of electric and magnetic phenomena 4. Greek philosophers were first to try and understand the science of electricity and magnetism 5. Important names in history of electricity and magnetism include Oersted, Faraday, Maxwell, etc.
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3 Electric charge 21-2 Some facts and observations include: Sparks, static cling (see Applet ) Charge is an intrinsic property of all matter There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative Bodies are said to be neutral if they do not carry excess charge – they have equal amounts of positive and negative charges Bodies are said to be charged if they carry net charge Charges with the same sign repel each other; charges with opposite sign attract each other
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In Benjamin Franklin’s day (18 th century) it was assumed that electric charge is some type of weightless continuous fluid. Investigations of the structure of atoms by Ernest Rutherford at the beginning of the 20 th century revealed how matter is organized and also identified the charges of its constituents. Atoms consist of electrons and the nucleus . Atoms have sizes 5 × 10 -10 m. Nuclei have sizes 5 × 10 -15 m. The nucleus itself consists of two types of particles: protons and neutrons . The electrons are negatively charged. The protons are positively charged. The neutrons are neutral (zero charge). 4 Thus electric charge is a fundamental property of the elementary particles (electrons, protons, neutrons) out of which atoms are made.
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5 Mass and Charge of Atomic Constituents Neutron (n) : Mass m = 1.675 × 10 -27 kg; Charge q = 0 Proton (p) : Mass m = 1.673 × 10 -27 kg; Charge q = +1.602 × 10 -19 C Electron (e) : Mass m = 9.11 × 10 -31 kg; Charge q = -1.602 × 10 -19 C Note 1: We use the symbols “- e” and “+e” for the electron and proton charge, respectively. This is known as the
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2010 for the course PHYS MTH 203 taught by Professor None during the Spring '10 term at American University of Sharjah.

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Notes on Chapter 21 - Electromagnetism Optics PHYS241 Section 01 Name Dr Kofi Agyeman Room 2105 Email [email protected] Textbook Fundamentals of

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