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BIO201_Final_Exam_Review

BIO201_Final_Exam_Review - Lecture30 CellCycleArrest...

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BIO201 Final Exam Review Lecture 30 Cell Cycle Arrest - Detect  DNA damage or cellular abnormalities and stalls progression to next step - During the delay, DNA damage is repaired or cell defect is corrected - Three main checkpoints are at: 1) G1 , 2) G2 , 3) Mitosis  DNA Content and Ploidy - Haploid: Single set of genetic information. Single Genome - Diploid: Two full sets of genetic information. Two copies of genome - Polyploidy: Many sets of genetic information. Many genomic copies - Ploidy(n): number of sets of genetic information. Number of copies of the genome - X: Mass of DNA or amount of DNA - C: Number of base pairs (size of DNA) Human DNA Content during Cell Cycle
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- G1: 22 autosomes + 1 sex chromosome (23 kinds of disperse chromatin) o 46 pieces   of disperse chromatin . Linear and double stranded    diploid (2n) - S: each pieces doubles o 92 pieces   of disperse chromatin     diploid (2n) - G2: same as S phase o 92 pieces   of disperse chromatin     diploid (2n) - Mitosis:  92 pieces of disperse G2 chromatin condenses to 92 chromatids o 92 chromatids are paired into  46 mitotic chromosomes     diploid (2n) Lecture 31 DNA changes during Cell Cycle - G1 phase ( diploid ; 2n) o All DNA is  disperse . Transcription and translation can happen. o 23 strands of paternal + 23 strands of maternal = 46 strands of disperse  chromatin o 2n2x2c  - S phase ( diploid ; 2n) o Replication. Disperse chromatin doubles o
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