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Unformatted text preview: AVR313: Interfacing the PC AT Keyboard Features • • • • Interfacing Standard PC AT Keyboards Requires Only Two I/O Pins. One of them must be an External Interrupt Pin No Extra Hardware Required Complete Example in C, Implementing a Keyboard to Serial Converter 8-bit Microcontroller Application Note Introduction Most microcontrollers requires some kind of a human interface. This application note describes one way of doing this using a standard PC AT keyboard. The Physical Interface The physical interface between the keyboard and the host is shown in Figure 1. Two signal lines are used, clock and data. The signal lines are open connector, with pullup resistors located in the keyboard. This allows either the keyboard or the host system to force a line to low level. Two connector types are available, the 5-pin DIN connector of “5D” type, and the smaller six-pin mini-DIN. The pin assignments are shown in Table 1. Figure 1. The Interface. AVR VCC INT0 (or INT1) Vcc +5V Keyboard Clock Pxy GND Data GND Rev. 1235B–AVR–05/02 1 Table 1. AT Keyboard Connector Pin Assignments 4 1 2 5 3 6 4 2 5 3 1 AT Computer Signals Clock Data nc GND +5V Shield DIN41524, Female at Computer, 5-pin DIN 180o 1 2 3 4 5 Shell 6-pin Mini DIN PS2 Style Female at Computer 5 1 2,6 3 4 Shell Timing The timing for the data transferred from the keyboard to the host is shown in Figure 2. The protocol is: one start bit (always 0), eight data bits, one odd parity bit and one stop bit (always 1). The data is valid during the low period of the clock pulse. The keyboard is generating the clock signal, and the clock pulses are typically 30-50 µs low and 30-50 µs high. The host system can send commands to the keyboard by forcing the clock line low. It then pulls the data line low (the start bit). Now, the clock line must be released. The keyboard will count 10 clock pulses. The data line must be set up to the right level by the host before the trailing edge of the clock pulse. After the tenth bit, the keyboard checks for a high level on the data line (the stop bit), and if it is high, it forces it low. This tells the host that the data is received by the keyboard. The software in this design note will not send any commands to the keyboard. Scan Codes The AT keyboard has a scan code associated with each key. When a key is pressed, this code is transmitted. If a key is held down for a while, it starts repeating. The repeat rate is typically 10 per second. When a key is released, a “break” code ($F0) is transmitted followed by the key scan code. For most of the keys, the scan code is one byte. Some keys like the Home, Insert and Delete keys have an extended scan code, from two to five bytes. The first byte is always $E0. This is also true for the “break” sequence, e.g., E0 F0 xx… AT keyboards are capable of handling three sets of scan codes, where set two is default. This example will only use set two. The Software The code supplied with this application note is a simple keyboard to RS-232 interface. The scan codes received from the keyboard are translated into appropriate ASCII characters and transmitted by the UART. The source code is written in C, and is easily modified and adaptable to all AVR microconrollers with SRAM. Note: The linkerfile (AVR313.xcl) included in the software archive has to be included instead of the standard linkerfile. This is done from the include menu under XLINK – Options. The linker file applies to AT90S8515 only. 2 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 AVR313 The Algorithm Keyboard reception is handled by the interrupt function INT0_interrupt. The reception will operate independent of the rest of the program. The algorithm is quite simple: Store the value of the data line at the leading edge of the clock pulse. This is easily handled if the clock line is connected to the INT0 or INT1 pin. The interrupt function will be executed at every edge of the clock cycle, and data will be stored at the falling edge. After all bits are received, the data can be decoded. This is done by calling the decode function. For character keys, this function will store an ASCII character in a buffer. It will take into account if the shift key is held down when a key is pressed. Other keys like function keys, navigation keys (arrow keys, page up/down keys etc.) and modifier keys like Ctrl and Alt are ignored. The mapping from scan codes to ascii characters are handled with table look-ups, one table for shifted characters and one for un-shifted. Modifications and Improvements If the host falls out of sync with the keyboard, all subsequent data received will be wrong. One way to solve this is to use a time out. If 11 bits are not received within 1.5 ms, some error have occurred. The bit counter should be reset and the faulty data discarded. If keyboard parameters like typematic rate and delay are to be set, data must be sent to the keyboard. This can be done as described earlier. For the commands, see the keyboard manufacturer’s specifications. Figure 2. Timing for Keyboard to Host Transfer Clock Data Start Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7 Parity Stop Main.c #include <pgmspace.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include "io8515.h" #include "serial.h" #include "gpr.h" #include "kb.h" void main(void) { unsigned char key; init_uart(); init_kb(); // Initializes the UART transmit buffer // Initialize keyboard reception while(1) { key=getchar(); putchar(key); delay(100); } } 3 1235B–AVR–05/02 Low_level_init.c #include <ina90.h> #include <io8515.h> int __low_level_init(void) { UBRR = 12; UCR = 0x08; GIMSK= 0x40; // 19200bps @ 4 MHz // TX enable // Enable INT0 interrupt _SEI(); return 1; } Serial.c #include <stdio.h> #include <pgmspace.h> #include <io8515.h> #include "serial.h" /* SFR declarations */ #define ESC 0x1b #define BUFF_SIZE 64 flash char CLR = {ESC, ’[’,’H’, ESC, ’[’, ’2’, ’J’,0}; unsigned char UART_buffer[BUFF_SIZE]; unsigned char *inptr, *outptr; unsigned char buff_cnt; void init_uart(void) { inptr = UART_buffer; outptr = UART_buffer; buff_cnt = 0; } void clr(void) { puts_P(CLR); VT100 terminal } // Send a ’clear screen’ to a int putchar(int c) { if (buff_cnt<BUFF_SIZE) { *inptr = c; inptr++; buff_cnt++; // Put character into buffer // Increment pointer if (inptr >= UART_buffer + BUFF_SIZE) // Pointer wrapping 4 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 AVR313 inptr = UART_buffer; UCR = 0x28; // Enable UART Data register // empty interrupt return 1; } else { return 0; } } // Buffer is full // Interrupt driven transmitter interrupt [UART_UDRE_vect] void UART_UDRE_interrupt(void) { UDR = *outptr; outptr++; if (outptr >= UART_buffer + BUFF_SIZE) outptr = UART_buffer; if(--buff_cnt == 0) UCR = UCR && (1<<UDRIE); } // If buffer is empty: // disabled interrupt // Send next byte // Increment pointer // Pointer wrapping Kb.c #include <pgmspace.h> #include "kb.h" #include "serial.h" #include "gpr.h" #include "scancodes.h" #define BUFF_SIZE 64 unsigned char edge, bitcount;// 0 = neg. unsigned char kb_buffer[BUFF_SIZE]; unsigned char *inpt, *outpt; unsigned char buffcnt; 1 = pos. void init_kb(void) { inpt = kb_buffer;// Initialize buffer outpt = kb_buffer; buffcnt = 0; MCUCR = 2; // INT0 interrupt on falling edge 5 1235B–AVR–05/02 edge = 0; // 0 = falling edge 1 = rising edge bitcount = 11; } interrupt [INT0_vect] void INT0_interrupt(void) { static unsigned char data;// Holds the received scan code if (!edge) // Routine entered at falling edge { if(bitcount < 11 && bitcount > 2)// Bit 3 to 10 is data. Parity bit, { // start and stop bits are ignored. data = (data >> 1); if(PIND & 8) data = data | 0x80;// Store a ’1’ } MCUCR = 3;// Set interrupt on rising edge edge = 1; } else { // Routine entered at rising edge MCUCR = 2;// Set interrupt on falling edge edge = 0; if(--bitcount == 0)// All bits received { decode(data); bitcount = 11; } } } void decode(unsigned char sc) { static unsigned char is_up=0, shift = 0, mode = 0; unsigned char i; if (!is_up)// Last data received was the up-key identifier { switch (sc) { case 0xF0 :// The up-key identifier is_up = 1; break; case 0x12 :// Left SHIFT shift = 1; break; 6 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 AVR313 case 0x59 :// Right SHIFT shift = 1; break; case 0x05 :// F1 if(mode == 0) mode = 1;// Enter scan code mode if(mode == 2) mode = 3;// Leave scan code mode break; default: if(mode == 0 || mode == 3)// If ASCII mode { if(!shift)// If shift not pressed, { // do a table look-up for(i = 0; unshifted[i][0]!=sc && unshifted[i][0]; i++); if (unshifted[i][0] == sc) { put_kbbuff(unshifted[i][1]); } } else {// If shift pressed for(i = 0; shifted[i][0]!=sc && shifted[i][0]; i++); if (shifted[i][0] == sc) { put_kbbuff(shifted[i][1]); } } } else{ // Scan code mode print_hexbyte(sc);// Print scan code put_kbbuff(’ ’); put_kbbuff(’ ’); } break; } } else { is_up = 0;// Two 0xF0 in a row not allowed switch (sc) { case 0x12 :// Left SHIFT shift = 0; break; case 0x59 :// Right SHIFT shift = 0; break; case 0x05 :// F1 if(mode == 1) mode = 2; if(mode == 3) mode = 0; 7 1235B–AVR–05/02 break; case 0x06 :// F2 clr(); break; } } } void put_kbbuff(unsigned char c) { if (buffcnt<BUFF_SIZE)// If buffer not full { *inpt = c;// Put character into buffer inpt++; // Increment pointer buffcnt++; if (inpt >= kb_buffer + BUFF_SIZE)// Pointer wrapping inpt = kb_buffer; } } int getchar(void) { int byte; while(buffcnt == 0);// Wait for data byte = *outpt;// Get byte outpt++; // Increment pointer if (outpt >= kb_buffer + BUFF_SIZE)// Pointer wrapping outpt = kb_buffer; buffcnt--; // Decrement buffer count return byte; } 8 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 AVR313 Gpr.c #include "gpr.h" void print_hexbyte(unsigned char i) { unsigned char h, l; h = i & 0xF0; h = h>>4; h = h + ’0’; if (h > ’9’) h = h + 7; l = (i & 0x0F)+’0’; if (l > ’9’) l = l + 7; // High nibble // Low nibble putchar(h); putchar(l); } void delay(char d) { char i,j,k; for(i=0; i<d; i++) for(j=0; j<40; j++) for(k=0; k<176; k++); } Pindefs.h //********************* // Pin definition file //********************* // Keyboard konnections #define PIN_KB PIND #define PORT_KB PORTD #define CLOCK 2 #define DATAPIN 3 9 1235B–AVR–05/02 Scancodes.h // Unshifted characters flash unsigned char unshifted[2] = { 0x0d,9, 0x0e,’|’, 0x15,’q’, 0x16,’1’, 0x1a,’z’, 0x1b,’s’, 0x1c,’a’, 0x1d,’w’, 0x1e,’2’, 0x21,’c’, 0x22,’x’, 0x23,’d’, 0x24,’e’, 0x25,’4’, 0x26,’3’, 0x29,’ ’, 0x2a,’v’, 0x2b,’f’, 0x2c,’t’, 0x2d,’r’, 0x2e,’5’, 0x31,’n’, 0x32,’b’, 0x33,’h’, 0x34,’g’, 0x35,’y’, 0x36,’6’, 0x39,’,’, 0x3a,’m’, 0x3b,’j’, 0x3c,’u’, 0x3d,’7’, 0x3e,’8’, 0x41,’,’, 0x42,’k’, 0x43,’i’, 0x44,’o’, 0x45,’0’, 0x46,’9’, 0x49,’.’, 0x4a,’-’, 0x4b,’l’, 0x4c,'ø', 0x4d,'p', 0x4e,'+', 0x52,'æ', 0x54,'å', 0x55,'\\', 10 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 AVR313 0x5a,13, 0x5b,'¨', 0x5d,'\'', 0x61,'<', 0x66,8, 0x69,'1', 0x6b,'4', 0x6c,'7', 0x70,'0', 0x71,',', 0x72,'2', 0x73,'5', 0x74,'6', 0x75,'8', 0x79,'+', 0x7a,'3', 0x7b,'-', 0x7c,'*', 0x7d,'9', 0,0 }; // Shifted characters flash unsigned char shifted[2] = { 0x0d,9, 0x0e,'§', 0x15,'Q', 0x16,'!', 0x1a,'Z', 0x1b,'S', 0x1c,'A', 0x1d,'W', 0x1e,'"', 0x21,'C', 0x22,'X', 0x23,'D', 0x24,'E', 0x25,'¤', 0x26,'#', 0x29,' ', 0x2a,'V', 0x2b,'F', 0x2c,'T', 0x2d,'R', 0x2e,'%', 0x31,'N', 0x32,'B', 0x33,'H', 0x34,'G', 0x35,'Y', 0x36,'&', 11 1235B–AVR–05/02 0x39,’L’, 0x3a,’M’, 0x3b,’J’, 0x3c,’U’, 0x3d,’/’, 0x3e,’(’, 0x41,’;’, 0x42,’K’, 0x43,’I’, 0x44,’O’, 0x45,’=’, 0x46,’)’, 0x49,’:’, 0x4a,’_’, 0x4b,’L’, 0x4c,'Ø', 0x4d,'P', 0x4e,'?', 0x52,'Æ', 0x54,'Å', 0x55,'`', 0x5a,13, 0x5b,'^', 0x5d,'*', 0x61,'>', 0x66,8, 0x69,'1', 0x6b,'4', 0x6c,'7', 0x70,'0', 0x71,',', 0x72,'2', 0x73,'5', 0x74,'6', 0x75,'8', 0x79,'+', 0x7a,'3', 0x7b,'-', 0x7c,'*', 0x7d,'9', 0,0 }; 12 AVR313 1235B–AVR–05/02 Atmel Headquarters Corporate Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TEL 1(408) 441-0311 FAX 1(408) 487-2600 Atmel Operations Memory 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TEL 1(408) 441-0311 FAX 1(408) 436-4314 RF/Automotive Theresienstrasse 2 Postfach 3535 74025 Heilbronn, Germany TEL (49) 71-31-67-0 FAX (49) 71-31-67-2340 1150 East Cheyenne Mtn. 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