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phil - Bullet-proof glass is a type of glass and glass is...

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3.1 Fallacies in General Fallacy - a pattern or way of reasoning which is defective in that the conclusion of the reasoning is not supported by the premises employed in the reasoning, even though it may appear otherwise. 1. Formal fallacies - are defective in their form: if A is an argument that commits a formal fallacy, then any argument having the same form as A will commit the same fallacy. We have already discussed formal fallacies. All the argument forms identified as invalid in Section 6.6 (e.g., affirming the Consequent and Denying the Antecedent) exhibit formal fallacies. 2. Informal fallacies - on the other hand, are not defective at the level of form. Rather, they are defective at the level of meaning or content. Example:
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Unformatted text preview: Bullet-proof glass is a type of glass, and glass is fragile. Therefore, bullet-proof glass is fragile. This argument isn't fallacious because of anything to do with its form; what makes it fallacious has to do with what “bullet-proof" means and how it modifies “glass." Compare : A snare drum is a type of drum, and drums are percussion instruments. Therefore, a snare drum is a percussion instrument. This argument isn't fallacious at all, even though it has the same form as the previous argument. Hurley covers 22 informal fallacies, split into 5 types: 1 1. Fallacies of relevance 2 2. Fallacies of weak induction 3 3. Fallacies of presumption 4 4. Fallacies of ambiguity 5 5. Fallacies of grammatical analogy...
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