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3.2 - 3.2 Fallacies of Relevance 8 Fallacies of Relevance...

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3.2 Fallacies of Relevance 8 Fallacies of Relevance - The defect in arguments that commit this type of fallacy involves the relevance (or lack thereof) of premises to the conclusion they are supposed to support. 1. Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum) 2. Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam) 3. Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) 4. Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem) 5. Accident 6. Straw Man 7. Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi) 8. Red Herring ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ 1. Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum) - An arguer commits the fallacy of appeal to force when she suggests, either explicitly or implicitly, that some kind of harm will come to her listener or reader unless he accepts the conclusion she poses. Examples: 1. You shouldn't hire Jones. Unless, of course, you're looking for a career change. 2. My candidate is clearly the best person for the job. After all, electing the other candidate would only embolden terrorists. 2. Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam) - An arguer commits the fallacy of appeal to pity when she attempts to gain acceptance of the conclusion she poses by eliciting pity in her listener or reader. Examples: 1. Your Honor, my client should be freed. He lost his parents at an early age, was raised in squalor by his dirt-poor grandparents, and did not have the benefit of formal education past the sixth grade. 2. You know, Professor, you should move that exam from the Wednesday before break to the Friday after break. All my friends are going to Daytona, but they're leaving Wednesday morning. I'll completely miss the trip if I have to be here for an exam on Wednesday. Argument from Compassion: Some arguments have the flavor of an appeal to pity but are not fallacious. Hurley calls such arguments arguments from compassion. The key difference between appeals to pity and arguments from compassion is that the latter supply information that tells in favor of extending some sort of special consideration to the person in question. Example: Your Honor, my client should be provided transcripts of this trial in braille. He developed diabetes and lost his parents at an early age, and his dirt-poor grandparents who raised him couldn't properly care for a diabetic child. Consequently, he's now blind as well. 3. Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) - An arguer commits the fallacy of appeal to the people when she uses the natural need of her listener(s) or reader(s) to be loved, admired, esteemed, secure, etc. to convince her reader(s) or listener(s) to accept the conclusion she poses. An appeal to the people can be made either directly or indirectly. Direct Appeal to the People - A direct appeal to the people is often delivered to a large audience. The idea is to excite the emotions of the crowd so that everyone in the crowd comes away convinced of what was said. Political rallies(across the spectrum) and sporting events are rife with direct appeals to the people.
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