3.3 - 3.3. Fallacies of Weak Induction Six Fallacies of...

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3.3. Fallacies of Weak Induction Six Fallacies of Weak Induction - Though the premises of an argument that commits this sort of fallacy do support the conclusion drawn from them, they don't support the conclusion enough to yield a good reason to believe the conclusion. 1. Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam) 2. Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam) 3. Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident) 4. False Cause 5. Slippery Slope 6. Weak Analogy 1 Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam) - An arguer commits the fallacy of appeal to unqualified authority when she expects her listener or reader to accept the conclusion she poses on the basis of the testimony or authority of an unqualified or otherwise incredible witness. EXAMPLES: The ways of being unqualified have in common that they seriously call into question the veracity of the relevant claims. 1. David Duke, former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, stated, “Jews are not good Americans. They have no understanding of what America is." On the basis of Duke's authority, we must therefore conclude that the Jews in this country are un-American . (bias that colors one's judgments on the subject in question.) 2. Old Mrs. Ferguson (who is practically blind) has testified that she saw the defendant stab the victim with a bayonet while she was standing in the twilight shadows 100 yards from the incident. Therefore, members of the jury, you must find the defendant guilty. (lack ability required to be reliable source of information in the circumstances) 3. I asked my mechanic, and he said the pain in my side is probably appendicitis. So I'd like to schedule an appendectomy, please . (lack the expertise or knowledge appropriate to the subject in question.) - The third example highlights an issue that bears remarking on, viz., that one can in some sense offer a fallacious argument to oneself. This is important to keep in mind because we act based on what we believe and much of what we believe is the outcome of internal reasoning (i.e., arguments we make to ourselves). Acting on a belief that is held on the basis of a fallacious argument will often have undesirable consequences, for all concerned. - Keep the following in mind when trying to decide if an authority is qualified: Some people are authorities in more than one area. Some areas are virtually without authorities (e.g., morality, religion, and politics). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 2. Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam) - An arguer commits the fallacy of appeal to ignorance when she advances premises to the effect that we are in a state of ignorance about some topic and then concludes something definite about that same topic.
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3.3 - 3.3. Fallacies of Weak Induction Six Fallacies of...

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