419 they suggest that attempts to use persuasion to

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Unformatted text preview: ave observed such effects in studies where people had to role-play behaviours that were inconsistent with their attitudes.18 Arnold Goldstein and Melvin Sorcher argue that the traditional view of attitude change has not always proven effective in organizations (Exhibit 4.4).19 They suggest that attempts to use persuasion to change beliefs and values often fail to lead to attitude change because the audience is unable to see how the new beliefs or values will be applicable to their on-the-job behaviour. For example, trainees might learn that people with various cultural backgrounds have different styles of communication but not understand how to apply this knowledge to dealing with the different people on the job. To deal with this problem, Goldstein and Sorcher suggest that individuals should be taught specific behaviours they can apply on the job that correspond to the desired attitude change. When the trainees find these behaviours are successful in carrying out their daily activities, dissonance theory suggests that attitudes will change to correspond to the newly learned behaviours. To teach the new behaviours, Goldstein and Sorcher recommend three techniques: ■ Exhibit 4.4 Models of attitude change. Source: Reprinted with permission from Goldstein, A. P., & Sorcher, M. (1974). Changing supervisor behavior. New York: Pergamon. Modelling of correct behaviours. Videotapes are usually employed for this purpose. Traditional Model Attitude Change Attitude Revised Model Attitude Modelling + Role Playing + Social Reinforcement Behaviour Change Behaviour Behaviour Change Behaviour Attitude Change to be Consistent with Behaviour Change Chapter 4 ■ ■ Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour 111 Role-playing of correct behaviours by trainees. In this phase, trainees get a chance to actually practise the desired behaviours. Social reinforcement of role-played behaviours. Trainers and fellow trainees provide reinforcement (usually praise) for correct role-playing performance. The revised model of attitude change that Goldstein and Sorcher suggest is shown in the right portion of Exhibit 4.4. Organizations such as IBM and General Electric have applied these techniques with success. Experts recommend them highly for cross-cultural training programs because the trainees actually get a chance to practise social skills useful in other cultures.20 W hat Is Job Satisfaction? Job satisfaction refers to a collection of attitudes that people have about their jobs. We can differentiate two aspects of satisfaction. The first of these is facet satisfaction, the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job. The notion of facet satisfaction is obvious when we hear someone say, “I love my work but hate my boss” or “This place pays lousy, but the people I work with are great.” Both these statements represent different attitudes toward separate facets of the speakers’ jobs. Research suggests that the most relevant attitudes toward jobs are contained in a rather small group of facets: the work itself, compensation, career opportunities, recognition, benefits, working conditions, supervision, co-workers, and organizational policy.21 In addition to facet satisfaction, we can also conceive of overall satisfaction, an overall or summary indicator of a person’s attitude toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets.22 The statement, “On the whole, I really like my job, although a couple of aspects could stand some improvement,” is indicative of the nature of overall satisfaction. Overall satisfaction is an average or total of the attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of the job. Thus, two employees might express the same level of overall satisfaction for different reasons. The most popular measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI).23 This questionnaire is designed around five facets of satisfaction. Employees are asked to respond “yes,” “no,” or “?” (cannot decide) in describing whether a particular word or phrase is descriptive of particular facets of their jobs. Exhibit 4.5 shows some sample JDI items under each facet, scored in the “satisfied” direction. A scoring system is available to provide an index of satisfaction for each facet. In addition, an overall measure of satisfaction can be calculated by adding the separate facet indexes. Work N ____ Routine Y ____ Creative N ____ Tiresome Y ____ Gives sense of accomplishment Supervision Y ____ Asks my advice Y ____ Praises good work N ____ Doesn’t supervise enough Y ____ Tells me where I stand People Y ____ Stimulating Y ____ Ambitious N ____ Talk too much N ____ Hard to meet Pay Y ____ N ____ N ____ Y ____ Promotions Y ____ Good opportunity for advancement Y ____ Promotion on ability N ____ Dead-end job N ____ Unfair promotion policy Income adequate for normal expenses Bad Less than I deserve Highly paid Job satisfaction. A collection of attitudes that workers have about...
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