Unformatted text preview: ries of events
and happenings that have the potential to provoke emotions or to influence moods,
depending on how we appraise these events and happenings. Thus, seeing a coworker being berated by a manager might provoke emotional disgust and lower
one’s job satisfaction, especially if it is a frequent occurrence. This illustrates that
perceived unfairness, as discussed earlier, can affect job satisfaction via emotion.
Also, a person’s disposition can interact with job events to influence satisfaction. For
instance, those who are neurotic and pessimistic may react to a minor series of job
setbacks with a negative mood that depresses their job satisfaction. Emotions. Intense, often shortlived, feelings caused by a particular event.
Moods. Less intense, longerlived, and more diffuse feelings. 116 Emotional contagion. Tendency
for moods and emotions to
spread between people or
throughout a group. Emotional regulation.
Requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in
their job behavior in spite of their
true mood or emotions. Exhibit 4.6
How discrepancy, fairness,
disposition, mood, and
emotion affect job
Individual Behaviour Part Two An interesting way in which mood and emotion can influence job satisfaction is
through emotional contagion. This is the tendency for moods and emotions to
spread between people or throughout a group. Thus, people’s moods and emotions
tend to converge with interaction. Generally, teams experiencing more positive
affect tend to be more cooperative, helpful, and successful, all of which are conditions that contribute to job satisfaction.35 Emotional contagion can also occur in
dealing with customers, such that pleasant service encounters contribute to the service provider’s satisfaction as well as to that of the customer.
Another interesting way in which mood and emotion can influence job satisfaction is through the need for emotional regulation. This is the requirement for people
to conform to certain “display rules” in their job behaviour, in spite of their true
mood or emotions. Often, this is referred to informally as “emotional labour.” In
one version, employees are expected to be perky and upbeat, whether they feel that
way or not, thus exaggerating positive emotions. In the other version, employees are
supposed to remain calm and civil even when hassled or insulted, thus suppressing
negative emotions. All jobs have their implicit display rules, such as not acting angry
in front of the boss. However, service roles such as waiter, bank teller, and flight
attendant are especially laden with display rules, some of which may be made
explicit in training and via cues from managers.
What are the consequences of the requirement for emotional regulation? There
is growing evidence that the frequent need to suppress negative emotions takes a toll
on job satisfaction and increases stress.36 Flight attendants can only humour so
many drunk or angry air passengers before the experience wears thin! On the other
hand, the jury is still out on the requirement to express positive emotions. Some
research suggests that this display rule boosts job satisfaction.37 If so, positive contagion from happy customers may be responsible. Of course, disposition may again
enter the picture, as extroverts may be energized by requirements for positive display.
Consideration of mood and emotion helps explain a curious but commonplace
phenomenon: how people with similar beliefs and values doing the same job for the
same compensation can still exhibit very different satisfaction levels. This difference
is probably a result of emotional events and subtle differences in mood that add up
over time. We will revisit emotion when we study emotional intelligence (Chapter
5), decision making (Chapter 11), stress (Chapter 13), and organizational change
Exhibit 4.6 summarizes what research has to say about the determinants of job
satisfaction. To recapitulate, satisfaction is a function of certain dispositional factors, the discrepancy between the job outcomes a person wants and the outcomes
received, and mood and emotion. More specifically, people experience greater satisfaction when they meet or exceed the job outcomes they want, perceive the job outcomes they receive as equitable compared with those others receive, and believe that
Fairness Values Job
Wanted Mood Job
Satisfaction Discrepancy Beliefs Perceived
Received Disposition Emotion Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour fair procedures determine job outcomes. The outcomes that people want from a job
are a function of their personal value systems, moderated by equity considerations.
The outcomes that people perceive themselves as receiving from the job represent
their beliefs about the nature of that job. Key Contributors to Job Satisfaction
From what we have said thus far, you might expect that job satisfaction is a highly
personal experience. While this is essentially true, we can make some general statements about the facets...
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