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Unformatted text preview: ork. The organizational structure was flattened Learning Objectives Checklist
1. Values are broad preferences for particular states of
affairs. Values tend to differ across occupational
groups and across cultures. Critical cross-cultural
dimensions of values include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, and time orientation. Differences
in values across cultures set constraints on the
export and import of organizational behaviour theories and management practices. They also have
implications for satisfying global customers and
developing globally aware employees. from seven levels to four, and a new team environment was created. One of the team manager’s functions was to put some “fun” into the
workplace through activities and prizes. Team
bonding was also encouraged through social
events. Second, efforts were made to make the
call centre jobs more mentally challenging. The
old functional separation between sales and service was eliminated, and new multi-skilled customer adviser positions were created. A
suggestion scheme called “Bright Ideas,” which
rewards good ideas with a chance for prizes, was
created to encourage staff to think up ways of
improving service. Third, perceptions of distributive and procedural fairness were enhanced
through a new, more generous, pay system.
Finally, RAC focused on the attitudes of its
workers through recruiting and training. The
goal was to have a more reliable, committed,
and skilled workforce. What were the results?
Performance indicators at RAC’s Bristol call
centre improved immediately in terms of calls
per hour and customer satisfaction. Turnover,
which had averaged between 27 and 35 percent
over the three years prior to the changes, fell to
8 percent in 1997 and 2 percent in 1998, while
absenteeism decreased by 5 percent from 1997
to 1998. Job satisfaction also rose after the
changes were implemented, and reported levels
of satisfaction remained high four years after the
changes. 2. Attitudes are a function of what we think about the
world (our beliefs) and how we feel about the world
(our values). Attitudes are important because they
influence how we behave, although we have discussed several factors that reduce the correspondence between our attitudes and behaviours. While
one approach to changing attitudes recommends
trying to alter an individual’s attitudes directly, dissonance theory suggests that attitudes can be
changed by getting people to enact desired behaviours that are incompatible with their attitudes.
3. Job satisfaction is an especially important attitude
for organizations. Satisfaction is a function of the 128 Individual Behaviour discrepancy between what individuals want from
their jobs and what they perceive that they obtain,
taking into account distributive and procedural fairness. Dispositional factors, moods, and emotions
also influence job satisfaction. Factors such as challenging work, adequate compensation, career
opportunities, and friendly, helpful co-workers contribute to job satisfaction.
4. Job satisfaction is important because it promotes
several positive outcomes for organizations.
Satisfied employees tend to be less absent and less
likely to leave their jobs. While links between satisfaction and performance are not always strong, satisfaction with the work itself has been linked to
better performance. Satisfaction linked to perceptions of fairness can also lead to citizenship behaviors on the part of employees. Satisfied workers may
also enhance customer satisfaction.
5. Organizational commitment is an attitude that
reflects the strength of the linkage between an
employee and an organization. Affective commitment is based on a person’s identification with an
organization. Continuance commitment is based on
the costs of leaving an organization. Normative
commitment is based on ideology or feelings of
obligation. Changes in the workplace can change the
nature and focus of employee commitment as well as
employer–employee relationships. To foster commitment, organizations need to be sensitive to the
expectations of employees and consider the impact
of policy decisions beyond economic issues. Discussion Questions
1. What are some of the conditions under which a
person’s attitudes might not predict his or her work
2. Many organizations use diversity training to promote favourable attitudes among employees who
differ in gender, age, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Given our discussion of attitude change,
what factors would improve the success of such
efforts? Could behaviour change foster attitude
3. Explain how these people might have to regulate
their emotions when doing their jobs: hair salon
owner; bill collector; police officer; teacher. How
will this regulation of emotion affect job satisfaction?
4. Using the model of the turnover process in Exhibit
4.7, explain why a very dissatisfied employee might
not quit his or her job. Explain why employees Part Two
who are very satisfied with their jobs might not be
better performers than those w...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2010 for the course FGT mba12ehtp taught by Professor Angwi during the Spring '10 term at Télécom Paris.
- Spring '10