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Third perceptions of distributive and procedural

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Unformatted text preview: ork. The organizational structure was flattened Learning Objectives Checklist 1. Values are broad preferences for particular states of affairs. Values tend to differ across occupational groups and across cultures. Critical cross-cultural dimensions of values include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, and time orientation. Differences in values across cultures set constraints on the export and import of organizational behaviour theories and management practices. They also have implications for satisfying global customers and developing globally aware employees. from seven levels to four, and a new team environment was created. One of the team manager’s functions was to put some “fun” into the workplace through activities and prizes. Team bonding was also encouraged through social events. Second, efforts were made to make the call centre jobs more mentally challenging. The old functional separation between sales and service was eliminated, and new multi-skilled customer adviser positions were created. A suggestion scheme called “Bright Ideas,” which rewards good ideas with a chance for prizes, was created to encourage staff to think up ways of improving service. Third, perceptions of distributive and procedural fairness were enhanced through a new, more generous, pay system. Finally, RAC focused on the attitudes of its workers through recruiting and training. The goal was to have a more reliable, committed, and skilled workforce. What were the results? Performance indicators at RAC’s Bristol call centre improved immediately in terms of calls per hour and customer satisfaction. Turnover, which had averaged between 27 and 35 percent over the three years prior to the changes, fell to 8 percent in 1997 and 2 percent in 1998, while absenteeism decreased by 5 percent from 1997 to 1998. Job satisfaction also rose after the changes were implemented, and reported levels of satisfaction remained high four years after the changes. 2. Attitudes are a function of what we think about the world (our beliefs) and how we feel about the world (our values). Attitudes are important because they influence how we behave, although we have discussed several factors that reduce the correspondence between our attitudes and behaviours. While one approach to changing attitudes recommends trying to alter an individual’s attitudes directly, dissonance theory suggests that attitudes can be changed by getting people to enact desired behaviours that are incompatible with their attitudes. 3. Job satisfaction is an especially important attitude for organizations. Satisfaction is a function of the 128 Individual Behaviour discrepancy between what individuals want from their jobs and what they perceive that they obtain, taking into account distributive and procedural fairness. Dispositional factors, moods, and emotions also influence job satisfaction. Factors such as challenging work, adequate compensation, career opportunities, and friendly, helpful co-workers contribute to job satisfaction. 4. Job satisfaction is important because it promotes several positive outcomes for organizations. Satisfied employees tend to be less absent and less likely to leave their jobs. While links between satisfaction and performance are not always strong, satisfaction with the work itself has been linked to better performance. Satisfaction linked to perceptions of fairness can also lead to citizenship behaviors on the part of employees. Satisfied workers may also enhance customer satisfaction. 5. Organizational commitment is an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization. Affective commitment is based on a person’s identification with an organization. Continuance commitment is based on the costs of leaving an organization. Normative commitment is based on ideology or feelings of obligation. Changes in the workplace can change the nature and focus of employee commitment as well as employer–employee relationships. To foster commitment, organizations need to be sensitive to the expectations of employees and consider the impact of policy decisions beyond economic issues. Discussion Questions 1. What are some of the conditions under which a person’s attitudes might not predict his or her work behaviour? 2. Many organizations use diversity training to promote favourable attitudes among employees who differ in gender, age, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Given our discussion of attitude change, what factors would improve the success of such efforts? Could behaviour change foster attitude change? 3. Explain how these people might have to regulate their emotions when doing their jobs: hair salon owner; bill collector; police officer; teacher. How will this regulation of emotion affect job satisfaction? 4. Using the model of the turnover process in Exhibit 4.7, explain why a very dissatisfied employee might not quit his or her job. Explain why employees Part Two who are very satisfied with their jobs might not be better performers than those w...
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