This will mean costs and disruptions for companies in

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Unformatted text preview: vided into groups based on positive versus negative emotions, and very different turnover intentions were found in the various categories. As shown in Exhibit 4.8, of the mainly positive employees, only 6 percent were planning to leave their jobs as opposed to 28 percent in the discontented group, and 16 percent in the neutral group. The implication, according to the study, is that 40 to 45 percent of the workers surveyed are at risk of leaving when the job market heats up and the economy gets rolling again. This will mean costs and disruptions for companies. In the meantime, companies may have a significant portion of their workers who are disenchanted and hanging on to their jobs for the wrong reasons. To the extent that these negative employee emotions affect customer service and performance, employers may end up fairly unhappy, too. Sources: Towers Perrin. (2003). Working today: Exploring employees’ emotional connections to their jobs. Retrieved June 25, 2003, from United_States/publications/Reports/Working_Today_Exploring_ Employees_Emotional_Connection_To_Their_Jobs/Work_ experience.pdf; Quote from Vu, U. (2003, February 24). Employee morale: One-third unhappy. Canadian HR Reporter, 16, p. 2. The nonpartisans (26%): Mild or mixed emotion 7% 28% 30% Source: Reprinted with permission of Towers Perrin, from “Working today: Exploring employees’ emotional connections to their jobs.” © Towers Perrin 2003. 3% 6% 25% 16% 39% 61% 44% Exhibit 4.8 Employee discontent and turnover intentions. 38% Staying with the company Planning to move elsewhere Not looking but possibly open to good offer Planning to retire 122 Individual Behaviour Part Two Performance It seems sensible that job satisfaction contributes to less absenteeism and turnover, but does it also lead to improved job performance? After all, employees might be so “satisfied” that no work is accomplished! In fact, research has confirmed what folk wisdom and business magazines have advocated for many years—job satisfaction is associated with enhanced performance.48 However, the connection between satisfaction and performance is complicated, because many factors influence motivation and performance besides job satisfaction (as we’ll see in Chapter 5). Thus, research has led to some qualifications to the idea that “a happy worker is a productive worker.” All satisfaction facets are not equal in terms of stimulating performance. The most important facet has to do with the content of the work itself.49 Thus, interesting, challenging jobs are most likely to stimulate high performance (we will see how to design such jobs in Chapter 6). One consequence of this is the fact that the connection between job satisfaction and performance is stronger for complex high tech jobs in science, engineering, and computers and less strong for more routine labour jobs. In part, this is because people doing complex jobs have more control over their level of performance. Another issue in the connection between job satisfaction and performance has to do with which of these is the cause and which the effect. Although job satisfaction contributes to performance, performance probably also contributes to job satisfaction.50 How does this happen? When good performance is followed by rewards, employees are more likely to be satisfied. Thus, the standout computer analyst who is given a bonus should register an increase in job satisfaction. This reversed causality is beneficial because the other benefits of high satisfaction accrue. However, many organizations do not reward good performance sufficiently, thus setting a limit on the connection between satisfaction and performance. In addition to boosting formal job performance, satisfaction can also contribute to employees’ informal, everyday behaviour and actions that help their organizations and their co-workers. Let us turn to a discussion of this. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Organizational citizenship behaviour. Voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness.51 In many cases, the formal performance evaluation system does not detect and reward it. Job satisfaction contributes greatly to the occurrence of OCB.52 An example of OCB should clarify the concept. You are struggling to master a particularly difficult piece of software. A colleague at the next desk, busy on her own rush job, comes over and offers assistance. Irritated with the software, you are not even very grateful at first, but within 10 minutes you have solved the problem with her help. Notice the defining characteristics of this example of OCB: ■ ■ ■ ■ The behaviour is voluntary. It is not included in her job description. The behaviour is spontaneous. Someone did not order or suggest it. The behaviour contributes to organizational effectiveness. It extends beyond simply doing you a personal favour. The behaviour is unlikely to be explicitly picked up and rewarded by the performance evaluation system, especially since it is not part of the job description. What are the various forms that OCB...
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