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Unformatted text preview: might take? As the software example indicates, one prominent form is helping behaviour, offering assistance to others.
Another might be conscientiousness to the details of work, including getting in on
the snowiest day of the year and not wasting organizational resources. A third form
of OCB involves being a good sport when the inevitable frustrations of organiza- Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour 123 When one worker voluntarily
helps out another, it is an
example of organizational
citizenship, which positively
effectiveness. tional life crop up—not everyone can have the best office or the best parking spot.
A final form of OCB is courtesy and cooperation.53 Examples might include
warning the photocopy unit about a big job that is on the way or delaying one’s own
work to assist a colleague on a rush job.
Just how does job satisfaction contribute to OCB? Fairness seems to be the
key.54 Although distributive fairness (especially in terms of pay) is important, procedural fairness on the part of one’s manager seems especially critical.55 If the manager strays from the prescriptions for procedural fairness we gave earlier, OCB can
suffer. If one feels unfairly treated, it might be difficult to lower formal performance
for fear of dire consequences. It might be much easier to withdraw the less visible,
informal activities that make up OCB. On the other hand, fair treatment and its
resulting satisfaction might be reciprocated with OCB, a truly personalized input.
It is interesting that OCB is also influenced by employees’ mood at work. People
in a pleasant, relaxed, optimistic mood are more likely to provide special assistance
to others.56 Some of this research is based on studies with salespeople, so OCB
might make customer service more competitive. Let’s look at this issue. Customer Satisfaction and Profit
So far, we have established that job satisfaction can reduce employee absenteeism
and turnover and increase employee performance and citizenship behaviour. But is
it possible that employee satisfaction could actually affect customer satisfaction?
That is, do happy employees translate into happy customers? And do happy
employees actually contribute to the bottom line of the organization by increasing
organizational profits? After all, we have warned that the translation of positive
attitudes into positive employee behaviours is less than perfect and such attitudes
therefore might not affect the bottom line.
A growing body of evidence has established that employee job satisfaction is
indeed translated into customer or client satisfaction and organizational profitability.57 Thus, organizations with higher average levels of employee satisfaction
are more effective. The same applies to units within larger organizations. Hence,
local bank branches or insurance claims offices with more satisfied employees
should tend to have more satisfied clients and generate more profitability for the
larger firm. Thus, it makes good sense to use employee satisfaction as one criterion
in judging the effectiveness of local unit managers. 124 Sears
www.sears.ca Individual Behaviour Part Two How does employee satisfaction translate into customer satisfaction? Reduced
absenteeism and turnover contribute to the seamless delivery of service, as do the
OCBs that stimulate good teamwork. Also, the mood mechanism, mentioned earlier, should not be discounted, as good mood among employees can be contagious
The Ford Motor Company (see Chapter 16) and the retailer Sears have been particularly attentive to the links among employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction,
and profit. In an 800-store study, Sears found a clear positive relationship between
employee satisfaction and store profitability. In addition, improvements in employee
satisfaction were mirrored in customer satisfaction, resulting in an estimated $200
million in added annual revenue.58
Let us turn now to another important work attitude—organizational commitment. What Is Organizational Commitment?
An attitude that reflects the
strength of the linkage between
an employee and an organization. Organizational commitment is an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage
between an employee and an organization. This linkage has implications for
whether someone tends to remain in an organization. Researchers John Meyer and
Natalie Allen have identified three very different types of organizational commitment:59 Affective commitment.
Commitment based on identification and involvement with an
organization. ■ Continuance commitment.
Commitment based on the costs
that would be incurred in leaving
an organization. ■ ■ Normative commitment.
Commitment based on ideology
or a feeling of obligation to an
organization. Affective commitment is commitment based on a person’s identification and
involvement with an organization. People with high affective commitment stay
with an organization because they want to...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2010 for the course FGT mba12ehtp taught by Professor Angwi during the Spring '10 term at Télécom Paris.
- Spring '10