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johns_ob_6e_ebook_chapp - 554 Indiviaual Behaviour Part Two...

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Research in Organizational Behaviour Learning Objectives After reading the Appendix, you should be able to: 1 Explain what a hypothesis is and define the meaning of a variable . 2 Differentiate reliability from validity and con- vergent validity from discriminant validity . 3 Understand observational research and dis- tinguish between participant and direct observation . 4 Describe correlational research and explain why causation cannot be inferred from corre- lation. 5 Explain experimental research and distinguish between independent and dependent vari- ables and explain the meaning of internal validity . 6 Discuss the relative advantages and disadvan- tages of various research techniques. 7 Describe random sampling and external validity and the role they play in the research process. 8 Explain the Hawthorne effect and how it can occur. 9 State the basic ethical concerns to which researchers must attend. A p p e n d i x Research is a way of finding out about the world through objec- tive and systematic information gathering. The key words here are objective and systematic , and it is these characteristics that separate the outcomes of the careful study of organizational behaviour from opinion and common sense. Understanding how researchers conduct their research is impor- tant to the study of organizational behaviour for several reasons. First of all, you should be aware of how the information presented in this book was collected. This should increase your confidence in the advantages of systematic study over common sense. Second, you will likely encounter reports, in management periodicals and the popular press, of interventions to improve organizational behaviour, such as job redesign or employee development programs. A critical perspective is necessary to differentiate those interventions that are carefully designed and evaluated from useless or even damaging ones. Those backed by good research deserve the greatest confi- dence. Occasionally, a manager may have to evaluate a research pro- posal or consultant’s intervention to be carried out in his or her own organization. A brief introduction to research methodology should enable you to ask some intelligent questions about such plans. Trained behavioural scientists who have backgrounds in man- agement, applied psychology, or applied sociology carry out research in organizational behaviour. While this introduction will not make you a trained behavioural scientist, it should provide an appreciation of the work that goes into generating accurate knowledge about organizational behaviour.
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Chapter 3 Perception, Attribution, and Judgment of Others The Basics of Organizational Behaviour Research All research in organizational behaviour begins with a question about work or orga- nizations. Sometimes, this question might stem from a formal theory in the field. For example, a motivation theory called equity theory (see Chapter 5) is concerned with peoples’ reactions to fairness or lack of it. Equity theory suggests the following
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