Distributed Localization for Wireless Sensor

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Distributed Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using LFM Waves Weile Zhang, Qinye Yin, Wenjie Wang MOE Key Lab for Intelligent Networks and Network Security, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, P. R. China Email: [email protected], { qyyin,wjwang } @mail.xjtu.edu.cn Abstract —A novel distributed localization method for wireless sensor networks (WSN) is proposed in this paper. Linear fre- quency modulation (LFM) waves are emitted from two anchors simultaneously to create an interference field. Through the fre- quency measurement of local RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) signal, the TDoA (Time-Difference-of-Arrival) is es- timated independently at each sensor to detect range difference from the sensor to the two anchors, by which the position can be determined. Furthermore, an extended method applied to mobile sensors is also presented. The proposed method only relies on radio transceivers and requires no time synchronization for sensors. Simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. I. INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor network (WSN) localization is an important area that attracted significant research interest. In many envi- ronmental monitoring applications, the measurement data are meaningless without knowing the location from where the data are obtained [1]. Several schemes, broadly classified into two categories, have been proposed for dealing with localization. First, the range- based schemes need either node-to-node distances or angles for estimating locations. TDoA technique based on ultrasound needs the auxiliary ultrasound transceiver that adds to the cost and size of the platform, and also has the weakness of limited range and directionality constraints [2]. Methods utilizing the radio usually rely on the received signal strength that is relatively accurate in short ranges with extensive calibration, but imprecise beyond a few meters [3]. The UWB technique can be utilized to conduct TOA or TDOA estimation, which has the advantages of low-cost and penetrating ability, but also has the shortcoming of short-range [4][5]. Second, the range- free schemes do not need the distance or angle information for localization, but they cannot achieve as high precision as the range-based [6][7]. The work in [8] proposes a localization system called Radio Interferometric Positioning System (RIPS) which utilizes two radio transmitters to create an interference signal. The com- posite signal has a low frequency envelop, which facilitates the signal strength measurement. The relative phase offset is a function of the relative positions between the two transmitters This work is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60772095 & 60971113), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (No. 200806980020), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60921003).
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2010 for the course ELEC 6111 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '10 term at E. Illinois.

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Distributed Localization for Wireless Sensor - This full...

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