01_intro_6pp - COMP472/6721 Artificial Intelligence...

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COMP472/6721 Artificial Intelligence An introduction and overview Some slides were adapted from Jessica Bayliss (www.cs.rit.edu/~jdb) Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering Concordia University, Montreal Important questions What is artificial intelligence as a field? What is intelligence? What are the goals of AI? How does one test whether a system is intelligent? Artificial Intelligence? What is your idea about artificial intelligence? Examples? No common definition There is no standard definition of AI among those working in the field AI has even been defined as: “… the collection of problems and methodologies studied by artificial intelligence researchers.” - Luger and StubbleField Luger’s definition Page 781: “AI is the study of the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior through the construction and evaluation of artifacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms.” AI could be... “the exciting new effort to make computers think ... machines with minds, in the full and literal sense” [Haugeland, 1985] “[the automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem-solving, learning ...” [Bellman, 1978] “the art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people” [Kurzweil, 1990] “the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better” [Rich and Knight, 1991]
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AI could be also... “the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models” [Charniak and McDermott,1985] “the study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason and act” [Winston,1992] “a field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes” [Schalkoff, 1990] “the branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior” [Luger and Stubblefield, 1993] The vision of an artificial human Ancient stories about talking statues Rabbi Loew of 16th century Prague was said to have created an artificial man, Joseph Golem to spy on the Gentiles to protect the Jewish community and to perform chores around the temple in his off hours. 19th century: von Kempelen built a “chess playing” machine which aroused interest in Europe for decades until it was shown that the game was actually played by a human skillfully concealed inside it. More ideas on artificial humans Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein 1923: Karel Cepak brought his play RUR (Rossum’s Universal Robot) to London. This play is the origin of the term “robot”, derived from a Slavic word meaning “slave”.
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