PA2 IRLS210D001.docx - NAME Professor Stelcikova IRLS210...

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NAME Professor Stelcikova IRLS210 D001 DATE International Relations 1. China’s Confucianism collided with modern international law regarding many international relations, however, later successfully was able to integrate through compromise through coercion of Western Powers which promoted China’s modernization. Through the Opium Wars, the Qing Empire was defeated when consequently forced modern international relations, international law, and form new norms in regard to international relations to be learned by China (Zewei 2011). Prior to the Opium Wars, the Qing Empire and foreign states were not equal in any sense. They formed a relationship with Western States that was only tributary. The Qing government maintained a sense of superiority over the Western states, but never forced its will over them (Zewei 2011). In regard of foreign trade, the Qing government feared relationship with foreign states would cause disaster with their government. Due to this they maintained a strictly limited trade with foreign states, including specific ports in which trade could be conducted and forbade direct traders between Chinese civilians and outside merchants. Later in the mid-19 th century, the Qing government had no choice but to succumb to the forces of the Western powers which consequently collapsed the Confucian world order that was based on the Celestial Empire of China (Zewei 2011). As a result, officials and scholars of China began to learn, accept, and apply modern international law. Although the view Tributary System and Confucian View lasted for the

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