Chapter7Part2 - Oxides of Sulfur 86% of 15 million...

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1 86% of 15 million anthropogenic annual SO x emission from combustion fossil-fuel at stationary sources 1-6% sulfur in coal . Either chemically bounded or physically trapped, and can be removed some by pulverizing or washing. Natural gas has significant H 2 S, but can be removed to negligible amount. ~5% of the SO x emission from vehicles Less than a few % in petroleum and after refining - < 1ppm Oxides of Sulfur Acid Rain: SO 2 + OH  HOSO 2 HOSO 2 + O 2 SO 3 + HO SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 Sulfate (SO 4 ) Aerosols: 0.2 – 0.9 m Affect visible light transmission Penetrate into respiratory system Rain pHs in US showing the acidic rain in eastern US due to larger coal consumption
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2 Predicted influence of US’s “Acid Rain Program” (Title IV of Clean Air Act) Particle Reach deeper in the lung to cause damage SO 2 Irritating as an foreign object Soluble, so likely to be adsorbed in the passage Synergistic Effect of Particles and SO 2
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3 Environmental Effects of Acid Rain Marvelous lion statues at the Acropolis. CaCO 3 + H 2 SO 4 CaSO 4 (soluble) + CO 2 + H 2 O Trees killed in the Great Smoky Mountains (Directly damage to affect the ability to extract nutrients, or leach more Al from soils to interfere the nutrients uptake ) Early mostly due to gasoline additives , tetraethyllead Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 As an octane booster in gasoline (the higher the less engine detonation (kick) and thus more efficient) Due to its poisoning effect for vehicle’s exhaust catalytic converter , most all fuels became unleaded in early 1900s*. Usually settling in the immediate vicinity of the source Lead * Except in some developing countries, and the fuels for aviation and nonroad vehicles
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4 Used in Paints : White paint - Pb(CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 : used to be widely in interior paints. Potential inhalation and ingestion dangers ( sweet , especially dangerous to children) Red-paint – Pb 3 O 4 : still used for outdoor metal protection Airborne Particles Deposit on soil , vegetable leafs , water to cause ingestion danger Lead Poison: behavior change, brain damage, and even death Air 1 g/m 3 , blood level 1-2 g/dL . Unleaded fuel: dropped from 16 to 3 g/dL (need to be < 10-15 g/dL) Motor Vehicle Emissions
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5 In US, transportation accounts for a significant fraction of all the criteria pollutants , except for SO x . From cars and trucks , and it emits right in the middle of crowded & urban population. In many other vehicles-fast growing countries, the vehicle growth rate may outstrip the population growth rate Leading urban congestion and very unhealthy air quality Vehicle Emission & Growth Estimated Problems: 400,000 Respiratory Attacks 50,000 Infant deaths Oil Import from Middle East New Vehicles Must Be Emission Standards Overview US Federal California Aiming for
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6 Vehicle Engines Fuel Exhaust Otto Cycle (Four-Stroke Cycle, ~1880) Nicholas Otto (1831-1891) German Engineer, Fuel Exhaust Two-Stroke Cycle (Clerk Cycle, 1881) Dugald Clerk (1854-1932) Scottish Engineer,
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7 Fuel Exhaust Which one may produce more air pollutants?
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Chapter7Part2 - Oxides of Sulfur 86% of 15 million...

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